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This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. This symposium explored the potential role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation upon relapse. HPA axis stimulation induces the release of the(More)
CONTEXT Alcohol dependence is a serious and common public health problem. It is well established that genetic factors play a major role in the development of this disorder. Identification of genes that contribute to alcohol dependence will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this disorder. OBJECTIVE To identify susceptibility genes(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy of pharmacological relapse prevention in alcoholism with acamprosate and naltrexone has been supported by several controlled trials. It remains uncertain whether any differential indication for treatment exists. METHODS We evaluated outcome data of a controlled trial on acamprosate and naltrexone in patients with low vs. high(More)
Alcohol dependence (AD) is an important contributory factor to the global burden of disease. The etiology of AD involves both environmental and genetic factors, and the disorder has a heritability of around 50%. The aim of the present study was to identify susceptibility genes for AD by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sample comprised(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to analyse initial orienting processes as well as maintenance of attention towards alcohol cues in recently detoxified alcoholics and light social drinkers. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of pre-treatment alcohol consumption and abstinence duration onto alcohol-related attentional bias. METHODS We used an(More)
OBJECTIVE Starting from a model of impaired response inhibition and salience attribution for addictive behaviour we investigated whether obese participants show a greater impairment of inhibitory control in response to food-associated cues compared with neutral stimuli and whether this is seen in normal-weight control subjects. In addition, we questioned(More)
BACKGROUND Naltrexone and acamprosate have been shown to be effective in relapse prevention of alcoholism via different pharmacologic mechanisms. Since it remains uncertain whether both substances are equally efficient and whether a combination of both drugs potentiates the efficacy, we conducted the first published controlled study comparing and combining(More)
By updating John Littleton's work published 15 years ago this review summarizes recent work on pharmacodynamic aspects of acamprosate and the perspective for future developments. In addition to insights into the role of glutamatergic receptor systems, craving and relapse inspired by acamprosate, clinical research points towards one question: if we knew how(More)
BACKGROUND An association between the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and alcohol intake behavior is currently discussed. We examined the relationship between efficacy of pharmacological anticraving treatment and HPA axis activity in the relapse prevention treatment of alcoholism. METHODS In 160 patients suffering from(More)