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Among Asian countries, Pakistan has the highest rates of breast and ovarian cancer. To assess the contribution of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations to these high rates, we conducted the first study of 176 Pakistani breast and ovarian cancer patients, selected on family history and on age of diagnosis. Comprehensive BRCA mutation screening was(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infectious pathogens in blood are a potential source of transmission of hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. The present study reviews the frequency of these infections in volunteer and replacement blood donors in Lahore, Pakistan. METHODS Data on serologic testing of blood donors (using commercial(More)
To the editor About 5% of breast cancers and 10% of ovarian cancers are a result of germ line mutations in the BRCA1 (MIM 113705) and BRCA2 (MIM 600185) genes [1, 2]. These genes encode multifunctional proteins that are involved in DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and cell cycle/checkpoint control [3]. The underlying mechanisms by which BRCA(More)
Many diseases are common in Pakistan, including endemic and epidemic infectious diseases, emerging infections, and an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. An estimated 8–9 million people in Pakistan are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), increasing the risk of chronic liver disease and cancer. Another 620 000 people have tuberculosis, and(More)
The National Action Plan for Non-communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) integrates prevention and control of cancers with a comprehensive NCD prevention framework with a specific emphasis on tobacco, diet and physical activity as cross-cutting risks. The programme prioritizes on sustainable institutional support(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the(More)
OBJECTIVES To review our experience of development and implementation of an electronic hospital information system, its costs and return on investment as well as incorporation of some key quality standards. METHODS Cost and saving trends of the project were calculated using different tools including project expense, cost saving through cessation of(More)
The relationship of pubococcygeal condition to orgasmic responsiveness in 102 women from a university community was examined in a controlled, prospective investigation. Pubococcygeal strength was measured with a perineometer while responsiveness was assessed by a standardized interview yielding reliable measures of self-reported orgasmic response. Subjects(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of the research was to review the distributions of age, stage at presentation, and morphology of patients presenting with carcinoma of the cervix in a predominantly Muslim population. STUDY DESIGN This retrospective study was conducted at a comprehensive cancer diagnostic and treatment facility situated in Lahore, Pakistan, reviewing(More)