In relational semantics, the input-output semantics of a program is a relation on its set of states. We generalize this in considering elements of Kleene algebras as semantical values. In a nondeterministic context, the demonic semantics is calculated by considering the worst behavior of the program. In this paper, we concentrate on while loops. Calculating… (More)
In relational semantics, the input-output semantics of a program is a relation on its set of states. We generalise this in considering elements of Kleene algebras as se-mantical values. In a nondeterministic context, the demonic semantics is calculated by considering the worst behaviour of the program. In this paper, we concentrate on while loops.… (More)
Relations and relational operators can be used to define the semantics of programming languages. The operations ∨ and • serve to give angelic semantics by defining a program to go right when there is a possibility to go right. On the other hand, the demonic operations and do the opposite: if there is a possibility to go wrong, a program whose semantics is… (More)
In this paper, we consider the local fractional decomposition method, variational iteration method, and differential transform method for analytic treatment of linear and nonlinear local fractional differential equations, homogeneous or nonhomogeneous. The operators are taken in the local fractional sense. Some examples are given to demonstrate the… (More)
In this chapter, the authors categorize methods that are used to formally specify and verify software requirements. They discuss several formal method-related subjects such as calculus fuzzy and relational calculus.
In this work; we present a method for solving the second-order linear ordinary differential equation of hypergeometric type. The solutions of this equation are given by the confluent hypergeometric functions (CHFs). Unlike previous studies, we obtain some different new solutions of the equation without using the CHFs. Therefore, we obtain new discrete… (More)