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The cloning of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC1-R and MC2-R, respectively) recently has led to the identification of three additional melanocortin receptors, MC3-R, MC4-R, and MC5-R. The MC2 receptor primarily recognizes only ACTH peptides, but the other four receptors all recognize(More)
The minimal sequence required for biological activity of alpha-MSH (alpha-melanotropin, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) was determined in the frog (Rana pipiens) skin bioassay. The sequence required to elicit measurable biological activity was the central tetrapeptide sequence, Ac-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-NH2 (Ac-alpha-MSH6-9-NH2), which was about 6 orders of(More)
Utilizing results from previous structure-activity relationships and theoretical studies of alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH, Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2) and its related superpotent analogues, Ac-[Nle4,D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH and Ac-[Cys4,Cys10]-alpha-MSH, we have designed a new class of alpha-MSH4-13 and alpha-MSH4-10 cyclic lactam(More)
A series of 138 nonchiral 3-amidinobenzyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamides and analogues as inhibitors of the blood coagulation enzyme factor Xa (fXa) were designed, synthesized, and investigated by X-ray structure analysis and 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies (CoMFA, CoMSIA) in order to identify important protein-ligand interactions(More)
We have used high-temperature quenched molecular dynamics calculations to investigate the conformational properties of tuftsin (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg) in solution. Conformers obtained after quenching of the dynamical structures were sorted into families depending on their relative energies and backbone conformations. By examination of these families, several(More)
Various techniques for generation of peptide and peptidomimetic libraries are summarized in this article. Multipin, tea bag, and split-couple-mix techniques represent the major methods used to make peptides and peptidomimetics libraries. The synthesis of these libraries were made in either discrete or mixture format. Peptides and peptidomimetics(More)
Histidine phosphorylation (pHis) is well studied in bacteria; however, its role in mammalian signaling remains largely unexplored due to the lack of pHis-specific antibodies and the lability of the phosphoramidate (P-N) bond. Both imidazole nitrogens can be phosphorylated, forming 1-phosphohistidine (1-pHis) or 3-phosphohistidine (3-pHis). We have developed(More)