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The histone variant H2AX is a principal component of chromatin involved in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). H2AX is thought to operate primarily through its C-terminal S139 phosphorylation, which mediates the recruitment of DNA damage response (DDR) factors to chromatin at DSB sites. Here, we describe a comprehensive(More)
The alternative non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) machinery facilitates several genomic rearrangements, some of which can lead to cellular transformation. This error-prone repair pathway is triggered upon telomere de-protection to promote the formation of deleterious chromosome end-to-end fusions. Using next-generation sequencing technology, here we show(More)
Genetic information is recorded in specific DNA sequences that must be protected to preserve normal cellular function. Genome maintenance pathways have evolved to sense and repair DNA damage. Importantly, deleterious mutations that occur from mis-repaired lesions can lead to diseases such as cancer. As eukaryotic DNA is bound by histone proteins and(More)
Histone ubiquitinations are critical for the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR). In particular, RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 function in the DDR by ubiquitinating H2A/H2AX on Lys-13/15 and Lys-118/119, respectively. However, it remains to be defined how the ubiquitin pathway engages chromatin to provide regulation of ubiquitin targeting of specific(More)
How chromatin shapes pathways that promote genome-epigenome integrity in response to DNA damage is an issue of crucial importance. We report that human bromodomain (BRD)-containing proteins, the primary "readers" of acetylated chromatin, are vital for the DNA damage response (DDR). We discovered that more than one-third of all human BRD proteins change(More)
Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) is a 5'→3' exonuclease and 5'-flap endonuclease that plays a critical role in multiple eukaryotic DNA repair pathways. Exo1 processing at DNA nicks and double-strand breaks creates long stretches of single-stranded DNA, which are rapidly bound by replication protein A (RPA) and other single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs). Here, we(More)
Upon DNA damage, histone modifications are dynamically reshaped to accommodate DNA damage signaling and repair within chromatin. In this study, we report the identification of the histone demethylase KDM5A as a key regulator of the bromodomain protein ZMYND8 and NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation) complex in the DNA damage response. We(More)
Chromatin-based DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are fundamental for preventing genome and epigenome instability, which are prevalent in cancer. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl groups on lysine residues, a post-translational modification important for the DDR. Acetylation can(More)
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