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The <i>Steiner tree</i> problem is one of the most fundamental NP-hard problems: given a weighted undirected graph and a subset of terminal nodes, find a minimum-cost tree spanning the terminals. In a sequence of papers, the approximation ratio for this problem was improved from 2 to the current best 1.55 [Robins,Zelikovsky-SIDMA'05]. All these algorithms… (More)

Davis-Putnam-style exponential-time backtracking algorithms are the most common algorithms used for finding exact solutions of NP-hard problems. The analysis of such recursive algorithms is based on the bounded search tree technique: a measure of the size of the sub-problems is defined; this measure is used to lower bound the progress made by the algorithm… (More)

The Steiner tree problem is one of the most fundamental <b>NP</b>-hard problems: given a weighted undirected graph and a subset of terminal nodes, find a minimum-cost tree spanning the terminals. In a sequence of papers, the approximation ratio for this problem was improved from 2 to 1.55 [Robins and Zelikovsky 2005]. All these algorithms are purely… (More)

For more than 30 years Davis-Putnam-style exponential-time backtracking algorithms have been the most common tools used for finding exact solutions of NP-hard problems. Despite of that, the way to analyze such recursive algorithms is still far from producing tight worst case running time bounds.The "Measure and Conquer" approach is one of the recent… (More)

We provide an algorithm listing all minimal dominating sets of a graph on <i>n</i> vertices in time <i>O</i>(1.7159<sup><i>n</i></sup>). This result can be seen as an algorithmic proof of the fact that the number of minimal dominating sets in a graph on <i>n</i> vertices is at most 1.7159<sup><i>n</i></sup>, thus improving on the trivial… (More)

We present a simple randomized algorithmic framework for connected facility location problems. The basic idea is as follows: We run a black-box approximation algorithm for the unconnected facility location problem, randomly sample the clients, and open the facilities serving sampled clients in the approximate solution. Via a novel analytical tool, which we… (More)

For more than 40 years, Branch & Reduce exponential-time backtracking algorithms have been among the most common tools used for finding exact solutions of NP-hard problems. Despite that, the way to analyze such recursive algorithms is still far from producing tight worst-case running time bounds. Motivated by this, we use an approach, that we call… (More)

Measuring the importance of a node in a network is a major goal in the analysis of social networks, biological systems, transportation networks etc. Different centrality measures have been proposed to capture the notion of node importance. For example, the center of a graph is a node that minimizes the maximum distance to any other node (the latter distance… (More)

This survey concerns techniques in design and analysis of algorithms that can be used to solve NP hard problems faster than exhaustive search algorithms (but still in exponential time). We discuss several of such techniques: Measure & Conquer, Exponential Lower Bounds, Bounded Tree-width, and Memorization. We also consider some extensions of the mentioned… (More)