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HIV controllers are rare individuals who spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. Emerging evidence indicates that HIV control is mediated through very active cellular immune responses, though how such responses can persist over time without immune exhaustion is not yet understood. To investigate the nature of memory(More)
Dominant tolerance is mediated by regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that control harmful autoimmune T cells in the periphery. In this study, we investigate the implication of T(reg) in modulating infiltrating T lymphocytes in human metastatic melanoma. We found that CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells are overrepresented in metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) with a 2-fold(More)
The small intestine epithelium (SI-Ep) harbors millions of unconventional (γδ and CD4(-) CD8(-) NK1.1(-) TCRαβ) and conventional (CD8αβ and CD4) T cells, designated intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Here, we identified the circulating pool of SI-Ep-tropic T cells and studied their capacity to colonize the SI-Ep under steady-state conditions in SPF mice.(More)
Although regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are known to suppress self-reactive autoimmune responses, their role during T cell responses to nonself antigens is not well understood. We show that T(regs) play a critical role during the priming of immune responses in mice. T(reg) depletion induced the activation and expansion of a population of low-avidity CD8(+) T(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infection in response to cytokines or to engagement of NK cell activating receptors. However, the identity of cells sensing viral particles and mediating NK cell activation has not been defined. Here, we show that local administration of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine in mice results in the(More)
Monoclonal antibodies represent a promising approach to fight a variety of tumors, but their mode of action remains to be fully understood. NK cells can recognize Ab-coated targets, as well as stress ligands, on tumor cells. In this study, we investigated how NK cells integrate both kinds of activating signals. NK cell-mediated killing was maximal with the(More)
It has been demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells require Ag persistence to achieve effective priming, whereas CD8(+) T cells are on "autopilot" after only a brief exposure. This finding presents a disturbing conundrum as it does not account for situations in which CD8(+) T cells require CD4(+) T cell help. We used a physiologic in vivo model to study the(More)
Lymphocyte arrest and spreading on ICAM-1-expressing APCs require activation of lymphocyte LFA-1 by TCR signals, but the conformational switches of this integrin during these critical processes are still elusive. Using Ab probes that distinguish between different LFA-1 conformations, we found that, unlike strong chemokine signals, potent TCR stimuli were(More)
We have analyzed the hierarchy of epitope-specific T cell populations during a primary and a secondary CD8 T cell response. MHC-peptide tetramers were used to track the in vivo kinetics of expansion of T cell populations specific for two Kd-restricted epitopes simultaneously presented by a murine tumor cell following primary or recall immunizations.(More)
Delivery of cell-associated antigen represents an important strategy for vaccination. While many experimental models have been developed in order to define the critical parameters for efficient cross-priming, few have utilized quantitative methods that permit the study of the endogenous repertoire. Comparing different strategies of immunization, we report(More)