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Endothelial cell migration is essential to angiogenesis. This motile process is directionally regulated by chemotactic, haptotactic, and mechanotactic stimuli and further involves degradation of the extracellular matrix to enable progression of the migrating cells. It requires the activation of several signaling pathways that converge on cytoskeletal(More)
Exposure of endothelial cells to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on site Tyr(407), an effect that required the association of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) with HSP90. The association of VEGFR2 with HSP90 involved the last 130 amino acids of VEGFR2 and was blocked by geldanamycin, a(More)
The efficacy and safety of biological molecules in cancer therapy, such as peptides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), could be markedly increased if high concentrations could be achieved and amplified selectively in tumour tissues versus normal tissues after intravenous administration. This has not been achievable so far in humans. We hypothesized that a(More)
BACKGROUND Oncolytic viruses hold much promise for clinical treatment of many cancers, but a lack of systemic delivery and insufficient tumor cell killing have limited their usefulness. We have previously demonstrated that vaccinia virus strains are capable of systemic delivery to tumors in mouse models, but infection of normal tissues remains an issue. We(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is phosphorylated on tyrosine and serine residues after cell activation. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of FAK in promoting endothelial cell migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that VEGF induces the activation of the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) release from endothelial cells, via endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation, is central to the proangiogenic actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF signaling to eNOS is principally mediated by an Akt-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS and by increased association of eNOS to the molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein(More)
Oncolytic viruses are generally designed to be cancer selective on the basis of a single genetic mutation. JX-594 is a thymidine kinase (TK) gene-inactivated oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and lac-Z transgenes that is designed to destroy cancer cells through replication-dependent cell lysis and(More)
Tumors are complex ecosystems composed of networks of interacting 'normal' and malignant cells. It is well recognized that cytokine-mediated cross-talk between normal stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), vascular endothelial cells, immune cells, and cancer cells, influences all aspects of tumor biology. Here we demonstrate that the(More)
A major barrier to all oncolytic viruses (OVs) in clinical development is cellular innate immunity, which is variably active in a spectrum of human malignancies. To overcome the heterogeneity of tumor response, we combined complementary OVs that attack cancers in distinct ways to improve therapeutic outcome. Two genetically distinct viruses, vesicular(More)
Due to cancer's genetic complexity, significant advances in the treatment of metastatic disease will require sophisticated, multi-pronged therapeutic approaches. Here we demonstrate the utility of a Drosophila melanogaster cell platform for the production and in vivo delivery of multi-gene biotherapeutic systems. We show that cultured Drosophila S2 cell(More)