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Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), which has been available for most AIDS patients in France since 1996, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the progression of the disease. From the survey of our series of 343 brains with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from patients who died between 1985 and 2002, we found both quantitative and(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to(More)
Recent experimental studies showed that activated macrophages/microglia (AMM) express excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), suggesting that, in addition to their neurotoxic properties, they also have a neuroprotective role by clearing extracellular glutamate and producing antioxidant glutathione. To test this hypothesis in human, the brain of 12(More)
Na+-dependent transporters for glutamate (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) clear extracellular glutamate in the brain and prevent excitotoxic neuronal damage. Glutamine synthetase (GS) provides metabolic support for neurones by producing the neurotrophic amino acid glutamine. EAAT and GS expression has recently been demonstrated in macrophages and(More)
The pathogenesis of cryptococcosis, including the events leading to the production of meningoencephalitis, is still largely unknown. Evidence of a transcellular passage of Cryptococcus neoformans across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent BBB disruption exists, but the paracellular passage of free yeasts and the role of monocytes in yeast(More)
Skeletal muscle stem cell fate in adult mice is regulated by crucial transcription factors, including the determination genes Myf5 and Myod. The precise role of Myf5 in regulating quiescent muscle stem cells has remained elusive. Here we show that most, but not all, quiescent satellite cells express Myf5 protein, but at varying levels, and that resident(More)
Productive varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was demonstrated in 11 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. A characteristic zoster skin eruption was seen in only four cases. From our own series and 11 other cases in the literature, we identified five(More)
A 38-year-old homosexual male with AIDS suffered four neurological episodes including headaches, confusion, visual impairment, memory disturbances, and dysarthria which resolved spontaneously in a few days. He was admitted to hospital during a fifth episode. Neurological examination revealed a cerebellar syndrome. General examination was normal. CD4 count(More)
A 46-year-old man was bitten by a dog in Mali; anti-rabies vaccination was incomplete. Three months later he was admitted to hospital with fever and diarrhea. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology was positive and CD4 count was 70/mm3. His status worsened rapidly with confusion hydrophobia and hypersialorrhea. Despite anti-rabies serotherapy and(More)