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Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), which has been available for most AIDS patients in France since 1996, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the progression of the disease. From the survey of our series of 343 brains with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from patients who died between 1985 and 2002, we found both quantitative and(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been(More)
Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system has been demonstrated by many cerebrospinal fluid studies; however, most HIV-1 carriers remain neurologically unimpaired during the so called "asymptomatic" period lasting from seroconversion to symptomatic AIDS. Therefore, neuropathological studies in the early pre-AIDS stages are very few, and the natural(More)
To characterize the distribution of apoptotic neurons and their relationships with the stage of disease, a history of HIV-dementia, and the degree of productive HIV infection, microglial activation and axonal damage, we examined the brains of 40 patients. Samples of frontal and temporal cortex, basal ganglia and brain stem were taken post-mortem from 20(More)
Genetically engineered mice (Myf5nLacZ/+, Myf5GFP-P/+) allowing direct muscle satellite cell (SC) visualization indicate that, in addition to being located beneath myofiber basal laminae, SCs are strikingly close to capillaries. After GFP(+) bone marrow transplantation, blood-borne cells occupying SC niches previously depleted by irradiation were similarly(More)
Mechanisms governing muscle satellite cell withdrawal from cell cycle to enter into quiescence remain poorly understood. We studied the role of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) and its receptor Tie-2 in the regulation of myogenic precursor cell (mpc) fate. In human and mouse, Tie-2 was preferentially expressed by quiescent satellite cells in vivo and reserve cells(More)
A 30-year-old AIDS patient with no history of cutaneous eruption, presented with rapidly progressive flaccid paraplegia, hypoesthesia, urinary retention, moderate psychomotor slowing and fever (39.8°C), leading to death within 1 week. CD4 count was 290/mm3. Cerebrospinal fluid contained 210 white blood cells and 238 mg/100 ml protein. Neuropathology(More)
Search for loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p, 9p, 10q, and 19q, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification, and p53 expression was performed in a series of 131 low-grade gliomas. The profile of molecular changes, clinical findings, and histology were subsequently correlated with the course of the disease, mainly progression-free(More)
A 49-year-old man suffered from progressive dementia and seizures leading to death after 2 years. CT scans showed severe cortical-subcortical atrophy and hypodensity of the white matter. His father had died at about the same age with similar clinical signs. Two sisters and one brother were also affected. Neuropathological study revealed predominant(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to(More)