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Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), which has been available for most AIDS patients in France since 1996, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the progression of the disease. From the survey of our series of 343 brains with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from patients who died between 1985 and 2002, we found both quantitative and(More)
Na+-dependent transporters for glutamate (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) clear extracellular glutamate in the brain and prevent excitotoxic neuronal damage. Glutamine synthetase (GS) provides metabolic support for neurones by producing the neurotrophic amino acid glutamine. EAAT and GS expression has recently been demonstrated in macrophages and(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been(More)
Recent experimental studies showed that activated macrophages/microglia (AMM) express excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), suggesting that, in addition to their neurotoxic properties, they also have a neuroprotective role by clearing extracellular glutamate and producing antioxidant glutathione. To test this hypothesis in human, the brain of 12(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to(More)
Productive varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was demonstrated in 11 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. A characteristic zoster skin eruption was seen in only four cases. From our own series and 11 other cases in the literature, we identified five(More)
A 38-year-old homosexual male with AIDS suffered four neurological episodes including headaches, confusion, visual impairment, memory disturbances, and dysarthria which resolved spontaneously in a few days. He was admitted to hospital during a fifth episode. Neurological examination revealed a cerebellar syndrome. General examination was normal. CD4 count(More)
A 46-year-old man was bitten by a dog in Mali; anti-rabies vaccination was incomplete. Three months later he was admitted to hospital with fever and diarrhea. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology was positive and CD4 count was 70/mm3. His status worsened rapidly with confusion hydrophobia and hypersialorrhea. Despite anti-rabies serotherapy and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of functional MRI (fMRI) at 3T, as currently used in the preoperative mapping of language areas, compared with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) during awake surgery, in patients with supratentorial gliomas; and to identify clinical, histopathologic,and radiologic factors associated with fMRI/DCS discrepancies. METHODS(More)
To characterize the distribution of apoptotic neurons and their relationships with the stage of disease, a history of HIV-dementia, and the degree of productive HIV infection, microglial activation and axonal damage, we examined the brains of 40 patients. Samples of frontal and temporal cortex, basal ganglia and brain stem were taken post-mortem from 20(More)