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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been(More)
Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), which has been available for most AIDS patients in France since 1996, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the progression of the disease. From the survey of our series of 343 brains with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from patients who died between 1985 and 2002, we found both quantitative and(More)
Mechanisms governing muscle satellite cell withdrawal from cell cycle to enter into quiescence remain poorly understood. We studied the role of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) and its receptor Tie-2 in the regulation of myogenic precursor cell (mpc) fate. In human and mouse, Tie-2 was preferentially expressed by quiescent satellite cells in vivo and reserve cells(More)
Sepsis, or systemic inflammatory response syndrome, is the major cause of critical illness resulting in admission to intensive care units. Sepsis is caused by severe infection and is associated with mortality in 60% of cases. Morbidity due to sepsis is complicated by neuromyopathy, and patients face long-term disability due to muscle weakness, energetic(More)
The myogenic determination genes Myf5, Myod and Mrf4 direct skeletal muscle cell fate prenatally. In adult myogenesis, Myod has been shown to regulate myoblast differentiation, however, our understanding of satellite cell regulation is incomplete since the roles of Myf5 and Mrf4 had not been clearly defined. Here we examine the function of Myf5 and Mrf4 in(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to(More)
The pathogenesis of cryptococcosis, including the events leading to the production of meningoencephalitis, is still largely unknown. Evidence of a transcellular passage of Cryptococcus neoformans across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent BBB disruption exists, but the paracellular passage of free yeasts and the role of monocytes in yeast(More)
The pathogenesis of cerebral infection after Cryptococcus neoformans fungemia in outbred mice was investigated. Confocal microscopy and cultures on ficoll-hypaque gradient-separated blood cells were used to detect yeasts in the cytoplasms of monocytes. In semithin brain sections, poorly capsulated yeasts were seen in macrophages in the leptomeningeal space,(More)
Recent experimental studies showed that activated macrophages/microglia (AMM) express excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), suggesting that, in addition to their neurotoxic properties, they also have a neuroprotective role by clearing extracellular glutamate and producing antioxidant glutathione. To test this hypothesis in human, the brain of 12(More)
Na+-dependent transporters for glutamate (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) clear extracellular glutamate in the brain and prevent excitotoxic neuronal damage. Glutamine synthetase (GS) provides metabolic support for neurones by producing the neurotrophic amino acid glutamine. EAAT and GS expression has recently been demonstrated in macrophages and(More)