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The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has emerged as an important early complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, especially in patients with tuberculosis. However, there are no consensus case definitions for IRIS or tuberculosis-associated IRIS. Moreover, previously proposed case definitions are not readily(More)
To assess the annual risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers (HCWs), the incidence rate ratio for tuberculosis (TB) among HCWs worldwide, and the population-attributable fraction of TB to exposure of HCWs in their work settings, we reviewed the literature. Stratified pooled estimates for the LTBI rate for countries with low(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the(More)
We reviewed 47 prospective studies of recurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) after cure to assess the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and rifampin treatment. Multivariate regression revealed that the recurrence rate for HIV-uninfected persons increased with decreasing duration of therapy: it was 1.4 cases per 100 person-years(More)
The recognition of tuberculosis (TB) as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons has led to renewed interest in TB preventive therapy and its incorporation into the essential package of health care for these individuals. Despite convincing data regarding its efficacy, TB preventive therapy has not(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection accounts for probably one third of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) events, particularly in developing countries where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is very common. Small cohort studies of HIV-positive patients with active TB treated with(More)
The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) poses a significant public health threat for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programmes and tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. Recent reports demonstrate high mortality rates among HIV-infected multidrug-resistant (MDR) and XDR-TB patients compared to those without HIV infection.(More)
In Africa, incidence and prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis have been assumed to be low. However, investigation after a 2005 outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, found that the incidence rate for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal was among the highest globally and would be higher(More)
SETTING Kenya, one of the 22 tuberculosis (TB) high-burden countries, whose TB burden is fuelled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE To monitor and evaluate the implementation of HIV testing and provision of HIV care to TB patients in Kenya through the establishment of a routine TB-HIV integrated surveillance system. DESIGN A(More)
Since 1990, progress has been made toward global tuberculosis (TB) control, as measured by targets set for 2015. However, TB remains a major threat to health around the world. In 2013, there were an estimated 11 million prevalent cases, and an estimated 9.0 million incident cases occurred globally. Approximately 1.5 million deaths were caused by TB,(More)