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Stavudine (d4T) is now recommended at the dose of 30 mg twice daily for all adult and adolescent patients regardless of body weight.[A-III] After the publication of WHO's 2006 guidelines for HIV therapy in adults and adolescents, the WHO Guidelines Development Group (GDG) reviewed evidence for the use of stavudine (d4T) at reduced doses. Previously, the(More)
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has emerged as an important early complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, especially in patients with tuberculosis. However, there are no consensus case definitions for IRIS or tuberculosis-associated IRIS. Moreover, previously proposed case definitions are not readily(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection accounts for probably one third of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) events, particularly in developing countries where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is very common. Small cohort studies of HIV-positive patients with active TB treated with(More)
SETTING Kenya, one of the 22 tuberculosis (TB) high-burden countries, whose TB burden is fuelled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE To monitor and evaluate the implementation of HIV testing and provision of HIV care to TB patients in Kenya through the establishment of a routine TB-HIV integrated surveillance system. DESIGN A(More)
Since 1990, progress has been made toward global tuberculosis (TB) control, as measured by targets set for 2015. However, TB remains a major threat to health around the world. In 2013, there were an estimated 11 million prevalent cases, and an estimated 9.0 million incident cases occurred globally. Approximately 1.5 million deaths were caused by TB,(More)
2 The creation of the present guidelines would not have been possible without the participation of numerous experts. This document was developed through an expert consultation process in which account was taken of current scientifi c evidence and the state of the art in the treatment of HIV infection. The primary focus was the context of resource-limited(More)
ii WHO policy on TB infection control WHO policy on TB infection control in health-care facilities, congregate settings and households. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any(More)
We reviewed 47 prospective studies of recurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) after cure to assess the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and rifampin treatment. Multivariate regression revealed that the recurrence rate for HIV-uninfected persons increased with decreasing duration of therapy: it was 1.4 cases per 100 person-years(More)
The recognition of tuberculosis (TB) as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons has led to renewed interest in TB preventive therapy and its incorporation into the essential package of health care for these individuals. Despite convincing data regarding its efficacy, TB preventive therapy has not(More)