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In recent years anti-spam filters have become necessary tools for Internet service providers to face up to the continuously growing spam phenomenon. Current server-side anti-spam filters are made up of several modules aimed at detecting different features of spam e-mails. In particular, text categorisation techniques have been investigated by researchers(More)
In the field of pattern recognition, the combination of an ensemble of neural networks has been proposed as an approach to the development of high performance image classification systems. However, previous work clearly showed that such image classification systems are effective only if the neural networks forming them make different errors. Therefore, the(More)
Although fingerprint verification systems reached a high degree of accuracy, it has been recently shown that they can be circumvented by " fake fingers " , namely, fingerprint images coming from stamps reproducing an user fingerprint, which is processed as an " alive " one. Several methods have been proposed for facing with this problem, but the issue is(More)
A spoof or fake is a counterfeit biometric that is used in an attempt to circumvent a biometric sensor. Liveness detection distinguishes between live and fake biometric traits. Liveness detection is based on the principle that additional information can be garnered above and beyond the data procured by a standard verification system, and this additional(More)
Recent experiments, reported in the third edition of Fingerprint Liveness Detection competition (LivDet 2013), have clearly shown that fingerprint liveness detection is a very difficult and challenging task. Although the number of approaches is large, none of them can be claimed as able to detect liveness of fingerprint traits with an acceptable error rate.(More)