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In recent years anti-spam filters have become necessary tools for Internet service providers to face up to the continuously growing spam phenomenon. Current server-side anti-spam filters are made up of several modules aimed at detecting different features of spam e-mails. In particular, text categorisation techniques have been investigated by researchers(More)
As one of the most comprehensive machine learning texts around, this book does justice to the field's incredible richness, but without losing sight of the unifying principles. Peter Flach's clear, example-based approach begins by discussing how a spam filter works, which gives an immediate introduction to machine learning in action, with a minimum of(More)
In the field of pattern recognition, the combination of an ensemble of neural networks has been proposed as an approach to the development of high performance image classification systems. However, previous work clearly showed that such image classification systems are effective only if the neural networks forming them make different errors. Therefore, the(More)
In security-sensitive applications, the success of machine learning depends on a thorough vetting of their resistance to adversarial data. In one pertinent, well-motivated attack scenario, an adversary may attempt to evade a deployed system at test time by carefully manipulating attack samples. In this work, we present a simple but effective gradient-based(More)
Fingerprint liveness detection consists in verifying if an input fingerprint image, acquired by a fingerprint verification system, belongs to a genuine user or is an artificial replica. Although several hardware-and software-based approaches have been proposed so far, this issue still remains unsolved due to the very high difficulty in finding effective(More)
A spoof or fake is a counterfeit biometric that is used in an attempt to circumvent a biometric sensor. Liveness detection distinguishes between live and fake biometric traits. Liveness detection is based on the principle that additional information can be garnered above and beyond the data procured by a standard verification system, and this additional(More)