Learn More
We discuss data representation which can be learned automatically from data, are invariant to transformations, and at the same time selective, in the sense that two points have the same representation only if they are one the transformation of the other. The mathematical results here sharpen some of the key claims of i-theory, a recent theory of feedforward(More)
Extracellular ATP controls various signaling systems including propagation of intercellular Ca(2+) signals (ICS). Connexin hemichannels, P2x7 receptors (P2x7Rs), pannexin channels, anion channels, vesicles, and transporters are putative conduits for ATP release, but their involvement in ICS remains controversial. We investigated ICS in cochlear organotypic(More)
The present phase of Machine Learning is characterized by supervised learning algorithms relying on large sets of labeled examples (n → ∞). The next phase is likely to focus on algorithms capable of learning from very few labeled examples (n → 1), like humans seem able to do. We propose an approach to this problem and describe the underlying theory, based(More)
The computational magic of the ventral stream: sketch of a theory (and why some deep architectures work). The computational magic of the ventral stream: sketch of a theory (and why some deep architectures work). been made since the previous version: most of the many changes are additions but some results that were partly wrong (e.g. the hierarchy of(More)
The inner ear contains delicate sensory receptors that have adapted to detect the minutest mechanical disturbances. Ca(2+) ions are implicated in all steps of the transduction process, as well as in its regulation by an impressive ensemble of finely tuned feedback control mechanisms. Recent studies have unveiled some of the key players, but things do not(More)
Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1γ (PIPKIγ) is a key enzyme in the generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] and is expressed at high levels in the nervous system. Homozygous knockout mice lacking this enzyme die postnatally within 24 h, whereas PIPKIγ(+/-) siblings breed normally and have no reported phenotype. Here we(More)
Connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) are encoded by two genes (GJB2 and GJB6, respectively) that are found within 50 kb in the same complex deafness locus, DFNB1. Immunocytochemistry and quantitative PCR analysis of Cx30 KO mouse cultures revealed that Cx26 is downregulated at the protein level and at the mRNA level in nonsensory cells located between(More)
UNLABELLED Connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) form hemichannels that release ATP from the endolymphatic surface of cochlear supporting and epithelial cells and also form gap junction (GJ) channels that allow the concomitant intercellular diffusion of Ca(2+) mobilizing second messengers. Released ATP in turn activates G-protein coupled P2Y(2) and(More)
Organization of immune responses requires exchange of information between cells. This is achieved through either direct cell-cell contacts and establishment of temporary synapses or the release of soluble factors, such as cytokines and chemokines. Here we show a novel form of cell-to-cell communication based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP released by(More)