Learn More
PURPOSE OF REVIEW We review the recent consensus definitions for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis,clinically isolated syndromes, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis (MS) in children. We also discuss the importance of clinically defined consistency, the need for biomarker-based patient delineation, the likelihood of subsequent MS diagnosis(More)
Cells of the innate immune system act in synergy to provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Here we describe that dendritic cells (DCs), matured with viral products or mimics thereof, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), activated natural killer (NK) cells more efficiently than other mature DC preparations. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells, which are(More)
BACKGROUND Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC Ab) are associated with limbic encephalitis and neuromyotonia in adults. There have been no systematic investigations in children to date. METHODS We looked for antibodies that are associated with CNS syndromes in adults including antibodies to VGKCs, NMDARs, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD),(More)
Encephalitis lethargica (EL) describes an encephalitis with psychiatric, sleep, and extrapyramidal movement disorders. Dyskinetic and parkinsonian forms have been described. EL shares clinical features with the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR-Ab) encephalitis. We studied 20 sera from pediatric patients with contemporary EL. Ten sera (from 2 males(More)
Recent reports of autoantibodies that bind to neuronal surface receptors or synaptic proteins have defined treatable forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Despite these developments, many cases of encephalitis remain unexplained. We have previously described a basal ganglia encephalitis with dominant movement and psychiatric disease, and proposed an autoimmune(More)
OBJECTIVE Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a candidate target antigen in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Although MOG is encephalitogenic in different animal models, the relevance of this antigen in human autoimmune diseases of the CNS is still controversial. METHODS We investigated the occurrence and biological(More)
The knowledge of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity in neurological disorders has expanded considerably in recent times. Recognition of clinical syndromes, reliable methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favourable outcome in acute and subacute neurological disorders that may be associated with significant morbidity and(More)
Autoantibodies that bind to voltage-gated potassium-channel complex proteins (VGKC-complex antibodies) occur frequently in adults with limbic encephalitis presenting with cognitive impairment and seizures. Recently, VGKC-complex antibodies have been described in a few children with limbic encephalitis, and children with unexplained encephalitis presenting(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the longitudinal dynamics of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) autoantibodies in childhood demyelinating diseases. METHODS We addressed the kinetics of anti-MOG immunoglobulins in a prospective study comprising 77 pediatric patients. This was supplemented by a cross-sectional study analyzing 126 pediatric patients with(More)