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OBJECTIVE Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a candidate target antigen in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Although MOG is encephalitogenic in different animal models, the relevance of this antigen in human autoimmune diseases of the CNS is still controversial. METHODS We investigated the occurrence and biological(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the longitudinal dynamics of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) autoantibodies in childhood demyelinating diseases. METHODS We addressed the kinetics of anti-MOG immunoglobulins in a prospective study comprising 77 pediatric patients. This was supplemented by a cross-sectional study analyzing 126 pediatric patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been discussed as a possible causative agent in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS. Cross-reactivity between EBV and myelin proteins has been proposed as a potential mechanism by which EBV could elicit an autoimmune response targeting the CNS. Recently, high antibody titers to native myelin oligodendrocyte(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW We review the recent consensus definitions for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis,clinically isolated syndromes, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis (MS) in children. We also discuss the importance of clinically defined consistency, the need for biomarker-based patient delineation, the likelihood of subsequent MS diagnosis(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that Sydenham chorea (SC) immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies bind to specific neuronal surface proteins, whereas IgG from patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) or Tourette syndrome (TS) do not bind to neuronal surface proteins. METHODS We used live(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) express many endocytic receptors that deliver antigens for major histocompatibility class (MHC) I and II presentation to CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, respectively. Here, we show that targeting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to one of them, the human multilectin DEC-205 receptor, in the presence of the DC maturation(More)
Cells of the innate immune system act in synergy to provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Here we describe that dendritic cells (DCs), matured with viral products or mimics thereof, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), activated natural killer (NK) cells more efficiently than other mature DC preparations. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells, which are(More)
BACKGROUND Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC Ab) are associated with limbic encephalitis and neuromyotonia in adults. There have been no systematic investigations in children to date. METHODS We looked for antibodies that are associated with CNS syndromes in adults including antibodies to VGKCs, NMDARs, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD),(More)
Encephalitis lethargica (EL) describes an encephalitis with psychiatric, sleep, and extrapyramidal movement disorders. Dyskinetic and parkinsonian forms have been described. EL shares clinical features with the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR-Ab) encephalitis. We studied 20 sera from pediatric patients with contemporary EL. Ten sera (from 2 males(More)
Recent reports of autoantibodies that bind to neuronal surface receptors or synaptic proteins have defined treatable forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Despite these developments, many cases of encephalitis remain unexplained. We have previously described a basal ganglia encephalitis with dominant movement and psychiatric disease, and proposed an autoimmune(More)