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The p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also called Erk2 and Erk1, respectively, have been implicated in proliferation as well as in differentiation programs. The specific role of the p44 MAPK isoform in the whole animal was evaluated by generation of p44 MAPK-deficient mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. The p44(More)
Despite extensive, recent research on the development of dendritic cells (DCs), their origin is a controversial issue in immunology, with important implications regarding their use in cancer immunotherapy. Although, under defined experimental conditions, DCs can be generated from myeloid or lymphoid precursors, the differentiation pathways that generate DCs(More)
The potential of sublingual (s.l.) delivery of vaccine was examined in mice. We show the existence of a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) in the s.l. epithelium and a rapid and transient increase in the frequency of s.l. DCs after topical application of cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant under the tongue. S.l. immunization with ovalbumin and CT induced(More)
The mucosal immune system of mammals consists of an integrated network of lymphoid cells which work in concert with innate host factors to promote host defense. Major mucosal effector immune mechanisms include secretory antibodies, largely of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype, cytotoxic T cells, as well as cytokines, chemokines and their receptors. Immunologic(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are highly efficient antigen-presenting cells (APC) that have an essential function in the development of immune responses against microbial pathogens and tumors. Although during the past few years our understanding of DC biology has remarkably increased, a precise characterization of the different DC subpopulations remains to be(More)
Two dendritic cell (DC) subsets have been identified in the murine system on the basis of their differential CD8alpha expression. CD8alpha(+) DCs and CD8alpha(-) DCs are considered as lymphoid- and myeloid-derived, respectively, because CD8alpha(+) but not CD8alpha(-) splenic DCs were generated from lymphoid CD4(low) precursors, devoid of myeloid(More)
Although dendritic cells (DCs) regulate immune responses, they exhibit functional heterogeneity depending on their anatomical location. We examined the functional properties of intestinal DCs after oral administration of cholera toxin (CT), the most potent mucosal adjuvant. Two CD11c+ DC subsets were identified both in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph(More)
BACKGROUND The role of lymphocytes in the specific defence against L. infantum has been well established, but the part played by polynuclear neutrophil (PN) cells in controlling visceral leishmaniasis was much less studied. In this report we examine in vivo the participation of PN in early and late phases of infection by L. infantum. RESULTS Promastigote(More)
To study the interaction of the TCR with its ligand, the complex of a MHC molecule and an antigenic peptide, we modified a TCR contact residue of a H-2Kd-restricted antigenic peptide with photoreactive 4-azidobenzoic acid. The photoreactive group was a critical component of the epitope recognized by CTL clones derived from mice immunized with such a peptide(More)
Topical application of cholera toxin (CT) onto mouse skin can induce a humoral immune response to CT as well as to coadministered Ags. In this study, we examined the nontoxic cell-binding B subunit of CT (CTB) as a potential adjuvant for cutaneous immune responses when coadministered with the prototype protein Ag, OVA. CTB applied onto skin induced serum Ab(More)