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The p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also called Erk2 and Erk1, respectively, have been implicated in proliferation as well as in differentiation programs. The specific role of the p44 MAPK isoform in the whole animal was evaluated by generation of p44 MAPK-deficient mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. The p44(More)
Although dendritic cells (DCs) regulate immune responses, they exhibit functional heterogeneity depending on their anatomical location. We examined the functional properties of intestinal DCs after oral administration of cholera toxin (CT), the most potent mucosal adjuvant. Two CD11c+ DC subsets were identified both in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph(More)
We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an(More)
BACKGROUND The role of lymphocytes in the specific defence against L. infantum has been well established, but the part played by polynuclear neutrophil (PN) cells in controlling visceral leishmaniasis was much less studied. In this report we examine in vivo the participation of PN in early and late phases of infection by L. infantum. RESULTS Promastigote(More)
The use of the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) as mucosal adjuvant and carrier-delivery system for inducing secretory Ab responses has been documented previously with different soluble Ags. In this study, we have evaluated this approach for inducing CTL responses against a prototype Ag, OVA, in the female genital mucosa. We report here the ability(More)
Intrathymic expression of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-encoded superantigens (SAg) induces the clonal deletion of T cells bearing SAg-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta elements. However, the identity of the thymic antigen-presenting cells (APC) involved in the induction of SAg tolerance remains to be defined. We have analyzed the potential(More)
Innate and adaptive immune cells work in concert to generate efficient protection at mucosal surface. Vaginal mucosa is an epithelial tissue that contains innate and adaptive immune effector cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that vaginal administration of Cholera toxin -based vaccines generate antigen-specific CD8 T cells through the stimulation of(More)
Persistent B cell responses in mucosal tissues are crucial to control infection against sexually transmitted pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The genital tract is a major site of infection by HIV. Sublingual (SL) immunization in mice was previously shown to generate HIV-specific B cell immunity that disseminates to the genital tract.(More)
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