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The p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also called Erk2 and Erk1, respectively, have been implicated in proliferation as well as in differentiation programs. The specific role of the p44 MAPK isoform in the whole animal was evaluated by generation of p44 MAPK-deficient mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. The p44(More)
Despite extensive, recent research on the development of dendritic cells (DCs), their origin is a controversial issue in immunology, with important implications regarding their use in cancer immunotherapy. Although, under defined experimental conditions, DCs can be generated from myeloid or lymphoid precursors, the differentiation pathways that generate DCs(More)
The potential of sublingual (s.l.) delivery of vaccine was examined in mice. We show the existence of a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) in the s.l. epithelium and a rapid and transient increase in the frequency of s.l. DCs after topical application of cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant under the tongue. S.l. immunization with ovalbumin and CT induced(More)
Despite the information dealing with the differential phenotype and function of the main mouse dendritic cell (DC) subpopulations, namely, CD8alpha(-) and CD8alpha(+) DCs, their origin and involvement in antiviral immune responses in vivo are still largely unknown. To address these issues, this study used the changes occurring in DC subpopulations during(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic cells (DCs) localized in stratified epithelia, such as those overlaying skin, buccal mucosa, and vagina. The contribution of LCs to the promotion or control of immunity initiated at epithelial sites remains debated. We report in this paper that an immunogen comprising OVA linked to the B subunit of cholera toxin, used as(More)
The mucosal immune system of mammals consists of an integrated network of lymphoid cells which work in concert with innate host factors to promote host defense. Major mucosal effector immune mechanisms include secretory antibodies, largely of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype, cytotoxic T cells, as well as cytokines, chemokines and their receptors. Immunologic(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor is a potent pro-angiogenic growth factor which is also known to alter tumor microenvironment by inhibiting dendritic cell differentiation and promoting accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In the present study, we analyzed the modifications induced by intratumoral expression of sFLT-1, a soluble VEGF receptor,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Fractalkine, a chemokine that presents as both a secreted and a membrane-anchored form, has been described as having tumour-suppressive activities in standard subcutaneous models. Here, we investigate the antitumour effect of fractalkine, in its three molecular forms, in two orthotopic models of metastatic colon cancer (liver and lung)(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are highly efficient antigen-presenting cells (APC) that have an essential function in the development of immune responses against microbial pathogens and tumors. Although during the past few years our understanding of DC biology has remarkably increased, a precise characterization of the different DC subpopulations remains to be(More)
Topical application of cholera toxin (CT) onto mouse skin can induce a humoral immune response to CT as well as to coadministered Ags. In this study, we examined the nontoxic cell-binding B subunit of CT (CTB) as a potential adjuvant for cutaneous immune responses when coadministered with the prototype protein Ag, OVA. CTB applied onto skin induced serum Ab(More)