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Developing countries, widely-known to be among the poorest of the world, are also among the most unstable economies. The instability of developing economies generates substantial costs that may be measured, directly, through the welfare costs of consumption fluctuations and, indirectly, through the consequences on growth. The recent literature has attempted(More)
The different stages of frog virus 3 (FV 3) morphogenesis have been investigated in chick embryo fibroblasts infected at an optimal temperature for virus growth (29 degrees C). The metabolic requirements for morphogenesis were determined by adding inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis at different periods in the virus growth cycle. The effect of a(More)
  • Thomas Grjebine, Urszula Szczerbowicz, +4 authors Natacha Valla
  • 2014
This paper analyzes the business cycle behavior of the corporate debt structure and its interaction with economic recovery. The debt structure is measured as the share of bonds in the total credit to non-nancial corporations for a quarterly panel of twenty ve economies over the period 1989-2013. We rst show that the substitution of loans for bonds in(More)