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Translesion synthesis (TLS) is the major pathway by which mammalian cells replicate across DNA lesions. Upon DNA damage, ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) induces bypass of the lesion by directing the replication machinery into the TLS pathway. Yet, how this modification is recognized and interpreted in the cell remains unclear.(More)
SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases are multi-protein complexes required for polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins by the 26S proteasome. Cullins, together with the RING-finger protein Rbx1, form the catalytic core of the ligase, and recruit the substrate-recognition module. Cycles of covalent modification of cullins by the(More)
Methods to quantify features of individual cells using light microscopy have become widely used in biology. A multitude of computational tools has been developed for image analysis; however, they are often only for specific cell types and microscopy techniques. This unit describes CellX, an open-source software package for cell segmentation, intensity(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signaling modules that control many cellular processes by integrating intra- and extracellular cues. The p38/Hog1 MAPK is transiently activated in response to osmotic stress, leading to rapid translocation into the nucleus and induction of a specific transcriptional program. When investigating(More)
An essential feature of synthetic biology devices is the conversion of signals from the exterior of the cell into specific cellular events such as the synthesis of a fluorescent protein. In the first synthetic gene circuits, signal transduction was accomplished via inducible or repressible transcription factors. Today, these rather simple transcription(More)
MOTIVATION Identifying cells in an image (cell segmentation) is essential for quantitative single-cell biology via optical microscopy. Although a plethora of segmentation methods exists, accurate segmentation is challenging and usually requires problem-specific tailoring of algorithms. In addition, most current segmentation algorithms rely on a few basic(More)
We present a microfluidic cell-culture chip that enables trapping, cultivation and release of selected individual cells. The chip is fabricated by a simple hybrid glass-SU-8-PDMS approach, which produces a completely transparent microfluidic system amenable to optical inspection. Single cells are trapped in a microfluidic channel using mild suction at(More)
The precise control of gene expression is essential in basic biological research as well as in biotechnological applications. Most regulated systems available in yeast enable only the overexpression of the target gene, excluding the possibility of intermediate or weak expression. Moreover, these systems are frequently toxic or depend on growth conditions.(More)
As a complement and alternative to optical methods, wide-band electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables multi-parameter, label-free and real-time detection of cellular and subcellular features. We report on a microfluidics-based system designed to reliably capture single rod-shaped Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by applying suction through orifices(More)
Ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) provide specificity to the ubiquitin system, which is also involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) in eukaryotic cells. Upon DNA damage, the UBDs (UBM domains) of polymerase iota (Pol ι) interact with ubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen to regulate the interchange between processive DNA polymerases and TLS. We(More)