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Neuroaxonal degeneration is a pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) contributing to irreversible neurological disability. Pathological mechanisms leading to axonal damage include autoimmunity to neuronal antigens. In actively demyelinating lesions, myelin is phagocytosed by microglia and blood-borne macrophages, whereas the fate of degenerating(More)
BACKGROUND Neurofilament (NF) proteins detection in biological fluids as a by-product of axonal loss is technically challenging and to date relies mostly on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measurements. Plasma antibodies against NF proteins and particularly to their soluble light chain (NF-L) could be a more practical surrogate marker for disease staging in(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is widely considered to be the result of an aggressive autoreactive T cell attack on myelin. How these autoimmune responses arise in MS is unclear, but they could result from virus infections. Thus, viral and autoimmune diseases in animals have been used to investigate the possible pathogenic mechanisms operating in MS. The(More)
Although the primary cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown, the widely accepted view is that aberrant (auto)immune responses possibly arising following infection(s) are responsible for the destructive inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). This notion, and the limited access of human brain tissue early in(More)
Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) are crucial for the stability of the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complex. In particular, the H-bonds formed between the peptide ligand and the MHC class II binding site appear to have a great influence on the half-life of the complex. Here we show that functional groups with the capacity to disrupt hydrogen bonds(More)
BACKGROUND Increased levels of antibodies to neurofilament light protein (NF-L) in biological fluids have been found to reflect neuroinflammatory responses and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether levels of serum antibodies against NF-L correlate with clinical variants and treatment response in MS. METHODS The(More)
The immune system is inextricably linked with many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neuromuscular disorder affecting motor cell function with an average survival of 3 years from symptoms onset. In ALS, there is a dynamic interplay between the resident innate immune cells, that is, microglia and(More)
BACKGROUND Autoimmune diseases result from a breakdown in self-tolerance to autoantigens. Self-tolerance is induced and sustained by central and peripheral mechanisms intended to deviate harmful immune responses and to maintain homeostasis, where regulatory T cells play a crucial role. The use of self-antigens in the study and treatment of a range of(More)
Neurological dysfunction and motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is strongly associated with neuroinflammation reflected by activated microglia and astrocytes in the CNS. In ALS endogenous triggers in the CNS such as aggregated protein and misfolded proteins activate a pathogenic response by innate immune cells. However, there(More)
Parasite proteins containing repeats are essential invasion ligands, important for their ability to evade the host immune system and to induce immunosuppression. Here, the intrinsic suppressive potential of repetitive structures within parasite proteins was exploited to induce immunomodulation in order to establish self-tolerance in an animal model of(More)