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Study on food intake and energy expenditure during extreme sustained exercise: the Tour de France.
Food intake and energy expenditure (EE) were studied in five cyclists during the 22-day race of the Tour de France. The course is about 4000 km including 30 mountain passages (up to 2700 m altitude)Expand
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Use of the doubly labeled water technique in humans during heavy sustained exercise.
We measured energy expenditure with the doubly labeled water technique during heavy sustained exercise in the Tour de France, a bicycle race lasting more than 3 wk. Four subjects were observed forExpand
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Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition.
We studied the effect of an increase in physical activity on energy balance and body composition without interfering with energy intake (EI). Sixteen women and sixteen men, aged 28-41 years, bodyExpand
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A dual-respiration chamber system with automated calibration.
This study characterizes respiration chambers with fully automated calibration. The system consists of two 14-m3 pull-type chambers. Care was taken to provide a friendly environment for the subjects,Expand
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Methods to assess physical activity with special reference to motion sensors and accelerometers
The evolution of motion sensors is reviewed from the mechanical pedometer to the electronic accelerometer. Expand
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Clustering of dietary variables and other lifestyle factors (Dutch Nutritional Surveillance System).
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate whether dietary factors cluster in a favourable or unfavourable way and to characterise the groups identified by lifestyle and sociodemographic variables.Expand
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Diet and other life-style factors in high and low socio-economic groups (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System).
Insight into the occurrence of and the association between certain socio-economic variables and life-style characteristics is necessary for preventive nutrition and health policy. The prevalence ofExpand
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Sleeping metabolic rate in relation to body composition and the menstrual cycle.
The relationship between sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) measured from 0300 to 0600 h in a respiration chamber and body composition was studied in 47 healthy adult subjects (23 men and 24 women). TheExpand
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Eating, drinking, and cycling. A controlled Tour de France simulation study, Part I.
Sustained exhausting exercise is thought to depress appetite and food intake. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of intensive cycling exercise, with an energy expenditureExpand
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Effects of dehydration on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal distress while running.
Gastrointestinal distress is commonly reported by athletes after ingestion of a beverage. We speculate that ingestion may be occurring after dehydration has taken place. The high prevalence of GIExpand
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