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This review focuses on recent findings as to the structure and function of genes encoding nearly all of the enzymes required for the biosynthesis of these indispensable pigments and the enzymes they encode. Expand
Functional analysis of the beta and epsilon lycopene cyclase enzymes of Arabidopsis reveals a mechanism for control of cyclic carotenoid formation.
The mechanism by which production and proportions of beta,beta- and beta, epsilon-carotenoids may be controlled and adjusted in plants and algae, while avoiding the formation of the inappropriate Epsilon,epsilon-carOTenoids is revealed. Expand
Cloning and Functional Analysis of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase of Arabidopsis thaliana*
An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding the enzyme β-carotene hydroxylase was identified by functional complementation in Escherichia coli and it is suggested that amino acid residues 70-129 of the A.Thaliana enzyme may play a role in formation of a functional homodimer. Expand
Differential expression of two isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerases and enhanced carotenoid accumulation in a unicellular chlorophyte.
The enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) isomerase catalyzes the reversible isomerization of IPP to produce dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, the initial substrate leading to the biosynthesis ofExpand
Identification, Expression, and Substrate Specificity of a Mammalian β-Carotene 15,15′-Dioxygenase*
We have identified from mouse the first mammalian β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase (β-CD), a crucial enzyme in development and metabolism that governs the de novo entry of vitamin A from plant-derivedExpand
Molecular structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942.
Results from DNA gel blot hybridization experiments suggest that, like two earlier genes in the pathway, the Synechococcus gene encoding lycopene cyclase is homologous to plant and algal genes encoding this enzyme. Expand
Cloning and characterization of the cDNA for lycopene β-cyclase from tomato reveals decrease in its expression during fruit ripening
The cDNA which encodes lycopene cyclase, CrtL, was cloned from tomato and tobacco and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, supporting the hypothesis that transcriptional regulation of gene expression is a predominant mechanism of regulating carotenogenesis. Expand
Evidence of a Role for LytB in the Nonmevalonate Pathway of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis
The combination of lytB and a cDNA encoding IPP isomerase was no more effective in enhancing carotenoid accumulation than ipi alone, indicating that the ratio of IPP and DMAPP produced via the DOXP pathway is influenced by LytB. Expand
Evidence for a common origin of chloroplasts with light-harvesting complexes of different pigmentation
It is reported that the red alga Porphyridium cruentum has a chlorophyll a-containing antenna complex functionally associated with photosystem I, and it is suggested that the light-harvesting proteins of all photosynthetic eukaryotes had a common origin and supports the idea that chloroplasts had acommon ancestor. Expand
One ring or two? Determination of ring number in carotenoids by lycopene ɛ-cyclases
The product of the lettuce cDNA efficiently converted lycopene into the bicyclic ɛ-carotene in a heterologous Escherichia coli system, similar in sequence to the Arabidopsis LCYe. Expand