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The synapsins: Key actors of synapse function and plasticity
Synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins and regulation of synaptic function.
Current understanding of the mechanism by which synapsin I modulates communication between nerve cells is described and the properties and putative functions of other phosphoproteins associated with synaptic vesicles are reviewed.
QuickPALM: 3D real-time photoactivation nanoscopy image processing in ImageJ
- R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. Mhlanga
- PhysicsNature Methods
- 1 May 2010
To the Editor: Although conventional microscopes have a reso-lution limited by diffraction to about half the wavelength of light, several recent advances have led to microscopy methods that achieve…
Mutations in GDI1 are responsible for X-linked non-specific mental retardation
The results show that both functional and developmental alterations in the neuron may account for the severe impairment of learning abilities as a consequence of mutations in GDI1, emphasizing its critical role in development of human intellectual and learning abilities.
Neurotransmitter release: fusion or 'kiss-and-run'?
SYN1 loss-of-function mutations in autism and partial epilepsy cause impaired synaptic function.
It is demonstrated that SYN1 is a novel predisposing gene to ASDs, in addition to epilepsy, and the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies the pathogenesis of both diseases is strengthened.
Arx Is a Direct Target of Dlx2 and Thereby Contributes to the Tangential Migration of GABAergic Interneurons
Although Arx has additional functions independent of the Dlx pathway, it is established a direct genetic relationship that controls critical steps in the development of telencephalic GABAergic neurons, contributing to elucidating the genetic hierarchy that likely underlies the etiology of a variety of human neurodevelopmental disorders.
Protein Kinase A-Mediated Synapsin I Phosphorylation Is a Central Modulator of Ca2+-Dependent Synaptic Activity
Data define a hierarchical crosstalk between cAMP- and CaM-dependent cascades and point to synapsin as a major effector of PKA in the modulation of activity-dependent SV exocytosis, which is primarily caused by calmodulin-dependent activation of cAMP pathways rather than by direct activation of CaM kinases.
Synaptophysin I controls the targeting of VAMP2/synaptobrevin II to synaptic vesicles.
- M. Pennuto, D. Bonanomi, F. Benfenati, F. Valtorta
- Biology, ChemistryMolecular biology of the cell
- 1 December 2003
Fluorescent chimeras of vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2, its highly homologous isoform VAMP1 and synaptotagmin I (SytI) were expressed in hippocampal neurons in culture and data support a role for SypI in directing the correct sorting of VAMP2 in neurons and demonstrate that a direct interaction between the two proteins is required in order to exert its effect.
Synaptophysin: leading actor or walk-on role in synaptic vesicle exocytosis?
- F. Valtorta, M. Pennuto, D. Bonanomi, F. Benfenati
- BiologyBioEssays : news and reviews in molecular…
- 1 April 2004
The main results of the studies on Syp are summarized, and it is explained why it is believed that Syp plays a major role in SV trafficking.