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A novel Epac-specific cAMP analogue demonstrates independent regulation of Rap1 and ERK
cAMP is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes that were thought to be mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). However, cAMP also directly regulates Epac1 and Epac2, guanine nucleotide-exchangeExpand
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cAMP Analog Mapping of Epac1 and cAMP Kinase
Little is known about the relative role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) and guanine exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (Epac) as mediators of cAMP action. We tested cAMP analogs forExpand
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Cyclic nucleotide analogs as biochemical tools and prospective drugs.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are key second messengers involved in a multitude of cellular events. From the wealth of synthetic analogs of cAMP and cGMP, only a few have been explored withExpand
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Type III CRISPR–Cas systems produce cyclic oligoadenylate second messengers
In many prokaryotes, type III clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems detect and degrade invasive genetic elements by an RNA-guided,Expand
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Epac-selective cAMP analogs: new tools with which to evaluate the signal transduction properties of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
The identification of 2'-O-methyl substituted adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) analogs that activate the Epac family of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMP-GEFs, alsoExpand
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Cyclic AMP induces integrin-mediated cell adhesion through Epac and Rap1 upon stimulation of the β2-adrenergic receptor
cAMP controls many cellular processes mainly through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA). However, more recently PKA-independent pathways have been established through the exchange proteinExpand
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Structure of Epac2 in complex with a cyclic AMP analogue and RAP1B
Epac proteins are activated by binding of the second messenger cAMP and then act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap proteins. The Epac proteins are involved in the regulation of cellExpand
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Epac-selective cAMP Analog 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP as a Stimulus for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ Release and Exocytosis in Pancreatic β-Cells*
The second messenger cAMP exerts powerful stimulatory effects on Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Previous studies of β-cells focused on protein kinase A (PKA) as aExpand
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Cyclic nucleotide analogs as probes of signaling pathways
To the editor: Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are critical second messengers that regulate multiple targets including different cAMPor cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs, PKGs)1,2,Expand
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Ligand-mediated Activation of the cAMP-responsive Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Epac*
Epac is a cAMP-dependent exchange factor for the small GTP-binding protein Rap. The activity of Epac is inhibited by a direct interaction between the C-terminal helical part of the cAMP-bindingExpand
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