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Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences
Using various methods, the size of the shadow economy in 76 developing, transition, and OECD countries is estimated. Average size varies from 12 percent of GDP for OECD countries, to 23 percent forExpand
Shadow economies around the world: what do we really know?
Using the DYMIMIC approach, estimates of the shadow economy in 110 developing, transition and developed OECD countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (in percent of officialExpand
New Estimates for the Shadow Economies all over the World
This paper presents estimations of the shadow economies for 162 countries, including developing, Eastern European, Central Asian, and high income OECD countries over 1999 to 2006/2007. According toExpand
Shadow Economies All Over the World: New Estimates for 162 Countries from 1999 to 2007
This paper presents estimations of the shadow economies for 162 countries, including developing, Eastern European, Central Asian, and high-income countries over the period 1999 to 2006/2007.Expand
Corruption and the shadow economy: an empirical analysis
This paper analyzes the influence of the shadow economy on corruption and vice versa. We hypothesize that corruption and the shadow economy are substitutes in high income countries while they areExpand
Shadow Economies Around the World: What Did We Learn Over the Last 20 Years?
We undertake an extended discussion of the latest developments about the existing and new estimation methods of the shadow economy. New results on the shadow economy for 158 countries all over theExpand
Shadow Economies and Corruption All Over the World: New Estimates for 145 Countries
Estimations of the shadow economies for 145 countries, including developing, transition and highly developed OECD economies over 1999 to 2005 are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (asExpand
Shadow economies around the world: novel insights, accepted knowledge, and new estimates
This paper is a first attempt to study the impact of enforcement on the shadow economy. Using a MIMIC model, we find that a higher share of sub-national government employment and the aspiration ofExpand
The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries All Over the World: First Results Over the Period 1999 to 2003
Using the DYMIMIC approach, estimates of the shadow economy in 145 developing, transition, developed OECD countries, South Pacific islands and still communist countries are presented. The averageExpand
The Impact of Tax Morale and Institutional Quality on the Shadow Economy
This paper uses a multivariate analysis to examine how countries‘ tax morale and institutional quality affect the shadow economy. The literature strongly emphasizes the quantitative importance ofExpand
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