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After providing a technical introduction to the fracture toughness of rock, this paper describes in detail two methods for measuring proposed by the isrm commission on testing methods. 'fractureExpand
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Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments in intact and pre-fractured rock
Abstract Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted to investigate two factors which could influence the use of the hydrofrac technique for in-situ stress determinations; the possibleExpand
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Upper-crustal strength inferred from stress measurements to 6 km depth in the KTB borehole
IT has been suggested1–6that in many cases the average strength of the continental crust is quite low (tens of megapascals), so that the crust has little effect on the large-scale deformation of theExpand
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The controlled failure of rock discs and rings loaded in diametral compression
The diametral compression of discs (the Brazilian test) and of rings induces a zone of tensile stress in the specimens. If, as the load is increased, failure occurs in the tensile zone, then theseExpand
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Brittle Fracture of Rocks
Most rocks specimens fail violently and uncontrollably at their peak strength when tested under unconfined stress conditions in conventional hydraulic loading systems. At failure their resitance toExpand
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Stress constraints and hydrofracturing stress data for the continental crust
Faulting and seismicity in the upper continental crust require considerable differential stresses. Application of experimentally developed friction, fracture and flow laws shows that highExpand
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Effect of confining pressure on the fracture behaviour of a porous rock
Abstract Triaxial compression tests were carried out on a porous sandstone from SW-Germany. The confining pressures ranged up to 200 MPa. Direct volumetric strain measurements indicated that pre-peakExpand
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