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Cutting Edge: TGF-β Induces a Regulatory Phenotype in CD4+CD25− T Cells through Foxp3 Induction and Down-Regulation of Smad7
CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes of thymic origin. However, recent data suggest an alternative commitment of regulatory T cells in the periphery, although the preciseExpand
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IL‐23/IL‐17 axis in IBD
&NA; Gut inflammation occurring in patients with Crohn's disease and patients with ulcerative colitis has been traditionally associated with an exaggerated Th1 or Th2 cell response, respectively.Expand
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Interleukin-21 enhances T-helper cell type I signaling and interferon-gamma production in Crohn's disease.
BACKGROUND & AIMS T-helper (Th)1 cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in Crohn's disease (CD). Interleukin (IL)-12/STAT4 signaling promotes Th1 cell commitment in CD, butExpand
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Interleukin 12 is expressed and actively released by Crohn's disease intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cell-mediated immunity is a feature of Crohn's disease (CD). The heterodimer interleukin (IL)-12, produced by phagocytes, induces T-cell cytokines, primarily interferon (IFN)-gamma.Expand
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IL-21 Counteracts the Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Human CD4+ T Lymphocytes1
High expression of IL-21 and/or IL-21R has been described in T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases characterized by defects of counterregulatory mechanisms. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are aExpand
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Up-Regulation of IL-17 Is Associated with Bioactive IL-8 Expression in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Human Gastric Mucosa1
Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated gastritis is characterized by an increased number of acute and chronic inflammatory cells secreting cytokines that contribute to maintain and expand the localExpand
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Interleukin-25 inhibits interleukin-12 production and Th1 cell-driven inflammation in the gut.
BACKGROUND & AIMS During the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), interleukin (IL)-12, a cytokine produced by mucosal CD14+ monocyte-like cells, promotes tissue-damaging T helper cell (Th)Expand
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Regulation of gut inflammation and th17 cell response by interleukin-21.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Interleukin (IL)-21, a T-cell-derived cytokine, is overproduced in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but its role in the pathogenesis of gut inflammation remains unknown. We hereExpand
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Interleukin 21 contributes to the mucosal T helper cell type 1 response in coeliac disease
Background: In coeliac disease (CD), the upper bowel lesion is associated with a marked infiltration of the mucosa with Th1 cells secreting interferon γ (IFNγ) and expressing the Th1-associatedExpand
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A Failure of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Negative Regulation Maintains Sustained NF-κB Activation in Gut Inflammation*
Immunologically mediated tissue damage in the gut is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate the transcription factor NF-κB in a variety of different cellExpand
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