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Parkinson-like syndrome induced by continuous MPTP infusion: convergent roles of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and alpha-synuclein.
In animals, sporadic injections of the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) selectively damage dopaminergic neurons but do not fully reproduce the features of humanExpand
Metabotropic glutamate receptors: From the workbench to the bedside
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were discovered in the mid 1980s and originally described as glutamate receptors coupled to polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis. Almost 6500 articles have beenExpand
Prenatal Restraint Stress Generates Two Distinct Behavioral and Neurochemical Profiles in Male and Female Rats
Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has beenExpand
Induction of Dickkopf-1, a Negative Modulator of the Wnt Pathway, Is Associated with Neuronal Degeneration in Alzheimer's Brain
We used primary cultures of cortical neurons to examine the relationship between β-amyloid toxicity and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein, the biochemical substrate for neurofibrillary tanglesExpand
Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Inhibitors: Rationale and Importance to Inhibiting These Pathways in Human Health
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Integral components of theseExpand
GSK-3 as potential target for therapeutic intervention in cancer
The serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified and studied in the regulation of glycogen synthesis. GSK-3 functions in a wide range of cellular processes.Expand
Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the basal ganglia motor circuit
In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the circuitry of the basal ganglia and our ability to predict the behavioural effects of specific cellular changes in thisExpand
Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno‐modulator
The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α, 25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism and exerts a large number of biological effects. Vitamin D3 inhibitsExpand
Roles of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathways in controlling growth and sensitivity to therapy-implications for cancer and aging
Dysregulated signaling through the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathways is often the result of genetic alterations in critical components in these pathways or upstream activators.Expand
ISO-1 Binding to the Tautomerase Active Site of MIF Inhibits Its Pro-inflammatory Activity and Increases Survival in Severe Sepsis*
MIF is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Antibodies against MIF are effective in experimental models ofExpand
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