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Placebos without Deception: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Background Placebo treatment can significantly influence subjective symptoms. However, it is widely believed that response to placebo requires concealment or deception. We tested whether open-labelExpand
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The ethics of placebo-controlled trials--a middle ground.
HE first placebo-controlled trial was probably conducted in 1931, when sanocrysin was compared with distilled water for the treatment of tuberculosis. 1 Ever since then, placebo-controlled trialsExpand
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Placebo Effects in Medicine.
Research has revealed placebo effects to be genuine biopsychosocial phenomena representing more than simply spontaneous remission or normal symptom fluctuations. How can this understanding be used toExpand
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Communicating the Results of Clinical Research to Participants: Attitudes, Practices, and Future Directions
The authors discuss the available data on the effects of communicating aggregate and individual research results on participants, investigators, and the research enterprise.
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The therapeutic orientation to clinical trials.
Traditionally, clinical trials have been understood as continuous with clinical medicine.1 In providing medical care for patients, the physician makes observations, investigates, tests hypotheses, ...
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Clinical Trials and Medical Care: Defining the Therapeutic Misconception
A key component of informed consent to participate in medical research includes understanding that research is not the same as treatment.
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The Nocebo Effect and Its Relevance for Clinical Practice
Negative expectations deriving from the clinical encounter can produce negative outcomes, known as nocebo effects. Specifically, research on the nocebo effect indicates that information disclosureExpand
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The Placebo Effect: Illness and Interpersonal Healing
The placebo effect has been a source of fascination, irritation, and confusion within biomedicine over the past 60 years. Although scientific investigation has accelerated in the past decade, withExpand
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What Makes Placebo-Controlled Trials Unethical?
The leading ethical position on placebo-controlled clinical trials is that whenever proven effective treatment exists for a given condition, it is unethical to test a new treatment for that conditionExpand
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