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Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS-5 region.
A new nomenclature for HCV variants is proposed in this communication that reflects the two-tiered nature of sequence differences between different viral isolates and describes criteria that would enable new variants to be assigned within the classification as they are discovered. Expand
Geographical distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors: an international collaborative survey.
The frequency of infection with the six classified major genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in 447 infected volunteer blood donors from the following nine countries, suggesting that vaccines based on these proteins need to be multivalent and perhaps specifically adapted for different geographical regions. Expand
Analysis of a new hepatitis C virus type and its phylogenetic relationship to existing variants.
Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of three distinct groups of sequences that corresponded to the recently described HCV types 1 and 2 variants, while viral sequences detected in around a third of the blood donors formed a separate phylogenetic group that probably represents infection with a novel virus species. Expand
A proposed system for the nomenclature of hepatitis C viral genotypes
Sequence variability in the 5' non-coding region of hepatitis C virus: identification of a new virus type and restrictions on sequence diversity.
The specific nucleotide substitutions in the 5' NCR that differentiate each of the four HCV types can be detected by restriction enzyme cleavage, providing a rapid and reliable method for virus typing. Expand
Identification of genotypes of hepatitis C virus by sequence comparisons in the core, E1 and NS-5 regions.
sequence analysis of variants in the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) and in the genes encoding the core protein, an envelope protein (E1) and a non-structural protein (NS-5) indicate that subgenomic regions such as E1 and NS-5 contain sufficient phylogenetic information for the identification of each of the 11 or 12 known types and subtypes of HCV. Expand
Hepatitis C virus genotypes: An investigation of type‐specific differences in geographic origin and disease
The data suggest significant geographic clustering of type 4 disease in the Middle East area and poor response to interferon‐α was noted in patients with type 1 disease, which may have important clinical implications. Expand
Detection of three types of hepatitis C virus in blood donors: investigation of type‐specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities
HCV type 1 is the most common HCV infection in blood donors and that infection with HCV type 3 may be associated with more severe liver disease, because of more recent infection or because of a greater inherent pathogenicity of type 3 variants. Expand
Mapping of serotype-specific, immunodominant epitopes in the NS-4 region of hepatitis C virus (HCV): use of type-specific peptides to serologically differentiate infections with HCV types 1, 2, and 3.
Whereas almost all blood donors appeared to be infected with a single virus type, a higher proportion of samples from hemophiliacs infected from transfusion of non-heat-inactivated clotting factor contained antibody to two or even all three HCV types, providing evidence that long-term exposure may lead to multiple infection with different variants of HCV. Expand
Discontinuous sequence change of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 env sequences in plasma viral and lymphocyte-associated proviral populations in vivo: implications for models of HIV
Rapid sequence change, consisting of regular replacements by a succession of distinct viral populations, was found in both plasma virus and PBMC provirus populations, indicating that at any one time point the predominant plasma virus variants were antigenically distinct from viruses encoded by HIV DNA sequences in PBMCs. Expand