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Cancer cachexia: understanding the molecular basis
Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial and often irreversible syndrome that affects around 50–80% of cancer patients, depending on the tumour type, and that leads to substantial weightExpand
IGF-1 is downregulated in experimental cancer cachexia.
Cancer cachexia is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting that is mainly supported by hypercatabolism. Muscle atrophy has been suggested to depend on impaired IGF-1 signal transduction pathway. TheExpand
The role of cytokines in cancer cachexia
A large number of observations point towards cytokines, polypeptides released mainly by immune cells, as the molecules responsible for the metabolic derangements associated with cancer‐bearingExpand
The pivotal role of cytokines in muscle wasting during cancer.
The cachectic syndrome, characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia, is invariably associated with the presence and growth of the tumour and leads to a malnutrition statusExpand
The cachexia score (CASCO): a new tool for staging cachectic cancer patients
BackgroundAccording to a recent consensus, the cachectic syndrome is defined as: “… a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or withoutExpand
Interleukin-15 mediates reciprocal regulation of adipose and muscle mass: a potential role in body weight control.
Interleukin (IL)-15 is a cytokine which is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Cell culture studies have indicated that IL-15 may have an important role in muscle fiber growth and anabolism.Expand
Journey from cachexia to obesity by TNF
Tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) is a cytokine involved in the physiological and metabolic abnormalities found in cachectic states. Until very recently, it was inconceivable to think of TNF‐α inExpand
Cytokines in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia
Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to summarize and update the role of different cytokines in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia and to provide therapeutic strategies based onExpand
Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Treatment on Insulin Sensitivity in an Animal Model of Diabetes: Improvement of the Inflammatory Status
In addition to decreased insulin sensitivity, diabetes is a pathological condition associated with increased inflammation. The ω‐3 fatty acids have been proposed as anti‐inflammatory agents. Thus,Expand
LPS induces apoptosis in macrophages mostly through the autocrine production of TNF-α
The deleterious effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during endotoxic shock are associated with the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the production of nitric oxide (NO), both predominantlyExpand