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HIV infection of the genital mucosa in women
The vast majority of new HIV infections are acquired via the genital and rectal mucosa. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge of how HIV establishes local infection, with an emphasisExpand
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Initial Events in Establishing Vaginal Entry and Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1
Summary Understanding the initial events in the establishment of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) entry and infection has been hampered by the lack of appropriate experimentalExpand
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Setting the stage: host invasion by HIV
For more than two decades, HIV has infected millions of people worldwide each year through mucosal transmission. Our knowledge of how HIV secures a foothold at both the molecular and cellular levelsExpand
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Exosomes in human semen carry a distinctive repertoire of small non-coding RNAs with potential regulatory functions
Semen contains relatively ill-defined regulatory components that likely aid fertilization, but which could also interfere with defense against infection. Each ejaculate contains trillions ofExpand
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Quantitative and stoichiometric analysis of the microRNA content of exosomes
Significance Exosomes have been a subject of great interest in recent years, especially in the context of the microRNAs (miRNAs) that they contain. Exosome-mediated miRNA transfer between cells hasExpand
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Virus-specific CD8+ T cells accumulate near sensory nerve endings in genital skin during subclinical HSV-2 reactivation
Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells play a critical role in controlling herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and reactivation. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of CD8+ T cells during HSVExpand
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Mediates Global Disruption of Innate Antiviral Signaling and Immune Defenses within Infected Cells
ABSTRACT Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) is essential for innate intracellular immune defenses that limit virus replication, but these defenses fail to suppress human immunodeficiency virusExpand
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Persistence of HIV-1 Receptor-Positive Cells after HSV-2 Reactivation: A Potential Mechanism for Increased HIV-1 Acquisition
To explore the mechanism by which herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection is related to HIV-1 acquisition, we conducted in situ analysis of the cellular infiltrate from sequential biopsies of HSV-2Expand
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Repeat-region polymorphisms in the gene for the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin-related molecule: effects on HIV-1 susceptibility.
In 1716 individuals--801 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seropositive individuals, 217 high-risk HIV-1-seronegative individuals, and 698 general HIV-1-seronegative individuals--from a SeattleExpand
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Vaginal Langerhans Cells Nonproductively Transporting HIV-1 Mediate Infection of T Cells
ABSTRACT Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has beenExpand
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