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Resting Microglial Cells Are Highly Dynamic Surveillants of Brain Parenchyma in Vivo
TLDR
Using in vivo two-photon imaging in neocortex, it is found that microglial cells are highly active in their presumed resting state, continually surveying their microenvironment with extremely motile processes and protrusions.
Deep tissue two-photon microscopy
TLDR
Fundamental concepts of nonlinear microscopy are reviewed and conditions relevant for achieving large imaging depths in intact tissue are discussed.
Sulforhodamine 101 as a specific marker of astroglia in the neocortex in vivo
TLDR
A new, highly selective approach for labeling astrocytes in intact rodent neocortex that allows in vivo imaging using two-photon microscopy and combining this method with calcium indicator loading of cell populations demonstrated distinct calcium dynamics in astroglial and neuronal networks.
Ca2+ buffering and action potential-evoked Ca2+ signaling in dendrites of pyramidal neurons.
TLDR
The mean dendrite [Ca2+]i encodes the action potential frequency during physiological patterns of electrical activity and may regulate Ca(2+)-dependent dendritic functions in an activity-dependent way.
Imaging input and output of neocortical networks in vivo.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that two-photon calcium imaging of bulk-labeled tissue permits dissection of local input and output activities in rat neocortex in vivo, and spontaneous activity in the neocortex is sparse and heterogeneously distributed in space and time across the neuronal population.
Pre‐ and postsynaptic whole‐cell recordings in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body of the rat.
TLDR
The effects of Presynaptic BAPTA suggest that the endogenous mobile Ca2+ buffer capacity of giant presynaptic terminals in the MNTB is lower than in other terminals of fast transmitting synapses.
Calcium dynamics associated with a single action potential in a CNS presynaptic terminal.
TLDR
The combination of the relatively low endogenous Ca(2+)-binding ratio and the high rate of Ca2+ extrusion provides an efficient mechanism for rapidly removing the largeCa2+ load of the terminal evoked by an action potential.
Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex.
TLDR
Two-photon laser scanning microscopy is used to image the motion of red blood cells in individual capillaries that lie as far as 600 micrometers below the pia mater of primary somatosensory cortex in rat, finding both the average velocity and density of RBCs are greater at high values of flux than at low values.
Lentivirus-based genetic manipulations of cortical neurons and their optical and electrophysiological monitoring in vivo
TLDR
A method for genetic manipulation and subsequent phenotypic analysis of individual cortical neurons in vivo is established and is ideally suited for analysis of gene functions in individual neurons in the intact brain.
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