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Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population
TLDR
A substantial proportion of homeless and marginally housed individuals had good adherence to PI therapy and a strong relationship was found between independent methods of measuring adherence and concurrent viral suppression.
Body Awareness: Construct and Self-Report Measures
TLDR
Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects ofBody awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations are explored.
Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection
TLDR
It is shown that increased lipopolysaccharide is bioactive in vivo and correlates with measures of innate and adaptive immune activation, which establish a mechanism for chronic immune activation in the context of a compromised gastrointestinal mucosal surface and provide new directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection.
Comparative Analysis of Measures of Viral Reservoirs in HIV-1 Eradication Studies
TLDR
Eleven different approaches are compared for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4+ T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison.
Tryptophan Catabolism by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Alters the Balance of TH17 to Regulatory T Cells in HIV Disease
TLDR
Patients with AIDS have fewer immune cells to defend against microbial invasion through the gut, a critical loss that may be caused by a tryptophan metabolite produced by other immune cells, and IDO1 inhibitors are being tested for their efficacy in interfering with this dangerous depletion of defenses.
The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation
TLDR
Differences in binding to viral peptide antigens by HLA may be the major factors underlying genetic differences between HIV controllers and progressors, and genome-wide association results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.
Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load.
TLDR
Data indicate that immunologic activation set point is established early in HIV infection, and that this set point determines the rate at which CD4+ T cells are lost over time.
Tim-3 expression defines a novel population of dysfunctional T cells with highly elevated frequencies in progressive HIV-1 infection
TLDR
Blocking the Tim-3 signaling pathway restored proliferation and enhanced cytokine production in HIV-1–specific T cells and represents a novel target for the therapeutic reversal of HIV–1–associated T cell dysfunction.
New DNA Viruses Identified in Patients with Acute Viral Infection Syndrome
TLDR
The detection of two previously undescribed viral species in a small group of individuals presenting acute viral syndrome with unknown etiology indicates that a rich yield of new human viruses may be readily identifiable using simple methods of sequence-independent nucleic acid amplification and limited sequencing.
Human CD4+ CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Control T-Cell Responses to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Cytomegalovirus Antigens
TLDR
It is shown that CD4+ CD25+ human TR cells suppress virus-specific T-cell responses and is proposed that chronic viral infections lead to induction of suppressive TR cells that inhibit the antiviral immune response.
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