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Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors.
TLDR
An easily interpretable index of predictive discrimination as well as methods for assessing calibration of predicted survival probabilities are discussed, applicable to all regression models, but are particularly needed for binary, ordinal, and time-to-event outcomes.
Regression Modeling Strategies with Applications to Linear Models
TLDR
This paper presents a meta-modelling procedure called Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model, which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of rebuilding a linear model from scratch.
Delirium as a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit.
TLDR
Delirium was an independent predictor of higher 6-month mortality and longer hospital stay even after adjusting for relevant covariates including coma, sedatives, and analgesics in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.
Evaluating the yield of medical tests.
TLDR
The treadmill exercise test is shown to provide surprisingly little prognostic information beyond that obtained from basic clinical measurements.
Outcomes following acute exacerbation of severe chronic obstructive lung disease. The SUPPORT investigators (Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments)
TLDR
Patients and caregivers should be aware of the likelihood of poor outcomes following hospitalization for exacerbation of COPD associated with hypercarbia, and are advised to report a good, very good, or excellent quality of life.
A new distribution-free quantile estimator
A new distribution-free estimator QP of the pth population quantile is formulated, where QP is a linear combination of order statistics admitting a jackknife variance estimator having excellent
Regression modelling strategies for improved prognostic prediction.
TLDR
A general index of predictive discrimination is used to measure the ability of a model developed on training samples of varying sizes to predict survival in an independent test sample of patients suspected of having coronary artery disease.
Partial Proportional Odds Models for Ordinal Response Variables
SUMMARY The ordinal logistic regression model that McCullagh calls the proportional odds model is extended to models that allow non-proportional odds for a subset of the explanatory variables. The
Criteria for Evaluation of Novel Markers of Cardiovascular Risk: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
TLDR
In general, a novel risk marker should be evaluated in several phases, including initial proof of concept, prospective validation in independent populations, documentation of incremental information when added to standard risk markers, assessment of effects on patient management and outcomes, and ultimately, cost-effectiveness.
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