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Levels of processing: A framework for memory research
This paper briefly reviews the evidence for multistore theories of memory and points out some difficulties with the approach. An alternative framework for human memory research is then outlined inExpand
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Depth of processing and the retention of words
SUMMARY Ten experiments were designed to explore the levels of processing framework for human memory research proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972). The basic notions are that the episodic memoryExpand
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Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task.
Previous work has shown that bilingualism is associated with more effective controlled processing in children; the assumption is that the constant management of 2 competing languages enhancesExpand
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Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals.
Ninety-six participants, who were younger (20 years) or older (68 years) adults and either monolingual or bilingual, completed tasks assessing working memory, lexical retrieval, and executiveExpand
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In Search of the Self: A Positron Emission Tomography Study
Previous work using positron emission tomography (PET) has shown that memory encoding processes are associated with preferential activation of left frontal regions of the brain, whereas retrievalExpand
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The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory.
The authors examined the effects of divided attention (DA) at encoding and retrieval in free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory in 4 experiments. Lists of words or word pairs were presentedExpand
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Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia
This study examined the effect of lifelong bilingualism on maintaining cognitive functioning and delaying the onset of symptoms of dementia in old age. The sample was selected from the records of 228Expand
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Cognition through the lifespan: mechanisms of change
Cognitive abilities rise steeply from infancy to young adulthood and then are either maintained or decline to old age, depending on the specific ability. This pattern suggests correspondingExpand
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Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain
Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children's cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine theExpand
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Lapses of Intention and Performance Variability Reveal Age-Related Increases in Fluctuations of Executive Control
We examine the hypothesis that the efficiency of executive control processes is less stable over time in older than younger adults. An age-related decrease in the efficiency of executive controlExpand
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