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BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES , DETERRENTS , AND REPELLENTS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE AND AN INCREASINGLY REGULATED WORLD
■ Abstract Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the
Uptake of Bt‐toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea
TLDR
The ecological effects of Bt‐maize, expressing the Cry1Ab protein, on larvae of this predator, were examined and the effects on C. carnea when fed each of the prey species.
Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control
TLDR
Because Bt-transgenic varieties can lead to substantial reductions in insecticide use in some crops, they can contribute to integrated pest management systems with a strong biological control component.
Biological control and sustainable food production
TLDR
Current studies indicate that genetically modified insect-resistant Bt crops may have no adverse effects on the activity or function of predators or parasitoids used in biological control.
Exposure of arthropod predators to Cry1Ab toxin in Bt maize fields
Abstract.  1. To assess the risks of an insect‐resistant transgenic plant for non‐target arthropods, it is important to investigate the exposure of non‐target species to the transgene product.
Assessing risks of releasing exotic biological control agents of arthropod pests.
TLDR
A review of documented nontarget effects and the development and application of comprehensive and quick-scan environmental risk assessment methods for biological control introductions worldwide are discussed.
Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla cornea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
TLDR
The results suggest that the reduced fitness of chrysopid larvae was associated with B. thuringiensis corn, and some unnoticed adverse effects in S. littoralis may have occurred because of the B.ThuringiensIS exposure and nutritional deficiency caused by sick prey.
Bacterial community structures in honeybee intestines and their response to two insecticidal proteins.
TLDR
Neither Bt-maize pollen nor high concentrations of Cry1Ab significantly affected bacterial communities in honeybee intestines, and total bacterial community structures may not be a sensitive indicator for providing evidence for the impact of insecticidal proteins on honeybees at sublethal levels.
The Induction of Volatile Emissions in Maize by Three Herbivore Species with Different Feeding Habits: Possible Consequences for Their Natural Enemies
TLDR
These findings suggest that induction of volatiles is the result of cell tissue damage, particularly to the leaves of the plant, which should have consequences also for the search strategies employed by the natural enemies of the respective herbivores.
Environmental risk assessment of exotic natural enemies used in inundative biological control
TLDR
A general framework of a risk assessment methodology for biological control agents is proposed, integrating information on the potential of an agent to establish, itsabilities to disperse, its host range, and its direct and indirect effects on non-targets.
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