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Envelope-Constrained Neutralization-Sensitive HIV-1 After Heterosexual Transmission
For eight heterosexual transmission pairs, it is shown that recipient viruses were monophyletic, encoding compact, glycan-restricted envelope glycoproteins, and that these viruses were uniquely sensitive to neutralization by antibody from the transmitting partner.
Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1
By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, this work could trace the origins of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities and establish P. t.
Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains.
- D. Sauter, M. Schindler, +20 authors F. Kirchhoff
- Biology, MedicineCell host & microbe
- 19 November 2009
Only HIV-1 M evolved a fully functional Vpu following the three independent cross-species transmissions that resulted in HIV- 1 groups M, N, and O, which may explain why group M viruses are almost entirely responsible for the global HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Risk to Human Health from a Plethora of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses in Primate Bushmeat
- M. Peeters, V. Courgnaud, +11 authors E. Delaporte
- Biology, MedicineEmerging infectious diseases
- 1 May 2002
These data document for the first time that a substantial proportion of wild monkeys in Cameroon are SIV infected and that humans who hunt and handle bushmeat are exposed to a plethora of genetically highly divergent viruses.
Nef-Mediated Suppression of T Cell Activation Was Lost in a Lentiviral Lineage that Gave Rise to HIV-1
It is reported that nef alleles from the great majority of primate lentiviruses, including HIV-2, downmodulate TCR-CD3 from infected T cells, thereby blocking their responsiveness to activation, and that Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost during viral evolution in a lineage that gave rise to HIV-1.
Hybrid Origin of SIV in Chimpanzees
The ancestry of HIV-1 has been traced to SIVcpz (simian immunodeficiency virus) infecting chim-panzees in west central Africa, but the origin of SIVCPz itself remains unknown.
Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Infection
It is shown that potent but relatively strain-specific neutralizing antibodies develop within 3 to 12 months of HIV-1 infection, and the magnitude of this response was associated with shorter V1-to-V5 envelope lengths and fewer glycosylation sites, particularly in the V 1-V2 region.
Molecular Ecology and Natural History of Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Wild-Living Chimpanzees
The first comprehensive survey of simian foamy viruses infection in free-ranging chimpanzees using newly developed, fecal-based assays indicates that SFVcpz is widely distributed among all chimpanzee subspecies and is transmitted predominantly by horizontal routes.
Wild Mandrillus sphinx Are Carriers of Two Types of Lentivirus
- S. Souquière, F. Bibollet-Ruche, +17 authors F. Simon
- Biology, MedicineJournal of Virology
- 1 August 2001
E Epidemiological surveys of human immunodeficiency virus revealed a case in Cameroon of a human infected by a virus serologically related to SIVmnd, raising the possibility that mandrills represent a viral reservoir for humans similar to sooty mangabeys in Western Africa and chimpanzees in Central Africa.