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Neuropharmacological Dissection of Placebo Analgesia: Expectation-Activated Opioid Systems versus Conditioning-Activated Specific Subsystems
We investigated the mechanisms underlying the activation of endogenous opioids in placebo analgesia by using the model of human experimental ischemic arm pain. Different types of placebo analgesicExpand
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Conscious Expectation and Unconscious Conditioning in Analgesic, Motor, and Hormonal Placebo/Nocebo Responses
The placebo and nocebo effect is believed to be mediated by both cognitive and conditioning mechanisms, although little is known about their role in different circumstances. In this study, we firstExpand
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Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects
For many years, placebos have been defined by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice. Recent research shows that placebo effects areExpand
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Mechanisms of placebo and placebo-related effects across diseases and treatments.
The placebo effect has evolved from being thought of as a nuisance in clinical and pharmacological research to a biological phenomenon worthy of scientific investigation in its own right. It is nowExpand
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When words are painful: Unraveling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect
The nocebo effect is a phenomenon that is opposite to the placebo effect, whereby expectation of a negative outcome may lead to the worsening of a symptom. Thus far, its study has been limited byExpand
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New Insights into the Placebo and Nocebo Responses
In modern medicine, the placebo response or placebo effect has often been regarded as a nuisance in basic research and particularly in clinical research. The latest scientific evidence hasExpand
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Neurobiological Mechanisms of the Placebo Effect
Any medical treatment is surrounded by a psychosocial context that affects the therapeutic outcome. If we want to study this psychosocial context, we need to eliminate the specific action of aExpand
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Placebo and the new physiology of the doctor-patient relationship.
  • F. Benedetti
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Physiological reviews
  • 1 July 2013
Modern medicine has progressed in parallel with the advancement of biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology. By using the tools of modern medicine, the physician today can treat and prevent a number ofExpand
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Somatotopic Activation of Opioid Systems by Target-Directed Expectations of Analgesia
We induced specific expectations of analgesia on four different parts of the body to understand how endogenous opioid systems are activated by expectancies. The left hand, right hand, left foot, andExpand
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Placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning
ABSTRACT Although it has long been known that psychosocial factors play a crucial role in placebo responses, no attempt has been made to understand if social observation shapes the placebo analgesicExpand
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