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Neuropharmacological Dissection of Placebo Analgesia: Expectation-Activated Opioid Systems versus Conditioning-Activated Specific Subsystems
The findings show that cognitive factors and conditioning are balanced in different ways in placebo analgesia, and this balance is crucial for the activation of opioid or nonopioid systems.
Conscious Expectation and Unconscious Conditioning in Analgesic, Motor, and Hormonal Placebo/Nocebo Responses
The effects of opposing verbal suggestions on experimental ischemic arm pain in healthy volunteers and on motor performance in Parkinsonian patients are analyzed and found that verbally induced expectations of analgesia/hyperalgesia and motor improvement/worsening antagonized completely the effects of a conditioning procedure.
A comprehensive review of the placebo effect: recent advances and current thought.
The demonstration of the involvement of placebo mechanisms inclinical trials and routine clinical practice has highlighted interesting considerations for clinical trial design and opened up opportunities for ethical enhancement of these mechanisms in clinical practice.
Mechanisms of placebo and placebo-related effects across diseases and treatments.
Recent research has revealed that these psychosocial-induced biochemical changes in a patient's brain and body in turn may affect the course of a disease and the response to a therapy.
Neurobiological Mechanisms of the Placebo Effect
It is necessary to eliminate the specific action of a therapy and to simulate a context that is similar in all respects to that of a real treatment to study this psychosocial context.
Placebo and the new physiology of the doctor-patient relationship.
This review describes recent findings that give scientific evidence to the old tenet that patients must be both cured and cared for and considers the placebo effect and the doctor-patient relationship.
Somatotopic Activation of Opioid Systems by Target-Directed Expectations of Analgesia
Findings show that a spatially directed expectation of pain reduction is capable of inducing a specific effect only on the part of the body which is the target of the expectation, and suggests that a highly organized and somatotopic network of endogenous opioids links expectation, attention, and body schema.