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Agonist-independent activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors by the intracellular protein Homer
TLDR
In neurons, the constitutive activity of these receptors is controlled by Homer proteins, which bind directly to the receptors' carboxy-terminal intracellular domains, which show that these glutamate GPCRs can be directly activated by intraceocytes as well as by agonists.
Development of GABA innervation in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices
In many areas of the vertebrate brain, such as the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, neural circuits rely on inhibition mediated by GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) to shape the spatiotemporal patterns of
The TOGp protein is a new human microtubule-associated protein homologous to the Xenopus XMAP215.
We have recently identified a 6,449 bp cDNA, termed colonic, hepatic tumor over-expressed gene (ch-TOG), that is highly expressed in human tumors and brain. Its single open reading frame encodes a
Subcellular domain-restricted GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex in the absence of sensory and thalamic inputs
TLDR
It is shown that the distributions of two major classes of GABAergic synapses along the perisomatic and dendritic domains of pyramidal neurons were indistinguishable between primary visual cortex in vivo and cortical organotypic cultures, indicating that subcellular synapse targeting is independent of thalamic input.
Shank Expression Is Sufficient to Induce Functional Dendritic Spine Synapses in Aspiny Neurons
TLDR
It is reported that knock-down of Shank3/prolinerich synapse-associated protein-2 by RNA interference reduces spine density in hippocampal neurons and transgene expression of Shank 3 is sufficient to induce functional dendritic spines in aspiny cerebellar neurons, which strongly suggest that Shank proteins and the associated glutamate receptors participate in a concerted manner to form spines and functional synapses.
Dendritic and Axonal Targeting of Type 5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Is Regulated by Homer1 Proteins and Neuronal Excitation
TLDR
The results suggest that Homer1a/b/c proteins are involved in the targeting of mGluR5 to dendritic synaptic sites and/or axons and that this effect can be regulated by neuronal activity.
Homer as Both a Scaffold and Transduction Molecule
TLDR
Roles in glutamate receptor function and intracellular signaling in neurons are summarized, with recent data indicating that Homer proteins not only control expression and localization of mGlu receptors and channels, but also participate in signaling of glutamate receptors in neurons.
Bergmann Glia and the Recognition Molecule CHL1 Organize GABAergic Axons and Direct Innervation of Purkinje Cell Dendrites
TLDR
It is shown that stellate axons are organized and guided towards Purkinje cell dendrites by an intermediate scaffold of Bergmann glial fibers and CHL1 a molecular signal in the organization of stellates axon arbors and in directing their dendritic innervation.
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