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Complex three-dimensional (3D) structures in biology (e.g., cytoskeletal webs, neural circuits, and vasculature networks) form naturally to provide essential functions in even the most basic forms of life. Compelling opportunities exist for analogous 3D architectures in human-made devices, but design options are constrained by existing capabilities in(More)
High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the chemical and structural environments of sulfur in coal. Measurement of the sulfur Kedge spectra down to 2472.0 electron volts under nonvacuum conditions was made possible in an all-helium path, and a Stern-Heald type ion chamber was used for fluorescence detection. For a number of selected(More)
X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the chemical and structural environment of vanadium in coal. It was found that vanadium exists in at least two environments, in both of which it was coordinated to oxygens. There was no evidence of vanadium in nitrogen (porphyrin) or sulfide environments. It was also found that the vanadium environments in the(More)
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