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Solid residues generated at European Waste to Energy plants contain altogether about 69,000 t/a of Zn, of which more than 50% accumulates in air pollution control residues, mainly boiler and filter ashes. Intensive research activities aiming at Zn recovery from such residues recently resulted in a technical scale Zn recovery plant at a Swiss waste(More)
Single-frequency operation of a 10.4-mum room-temperature multimode quantum-cascade laser was achieved by use of a 17-mm short Littrow-type external-cavity configuration. The spectral intensity of the external-cavity laser was increased as much as 20-fold compared with that of a multimode quantum-cascade laser without an external cavity. A single-frequency(More)
Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is classified as a hazardous material because it contains high amounts of heavy metals. For decontamination, MSW fly ash is first mixed with alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides (e.g. calcium chloride) and water, and then the mixture is pelletized and treated in a rotary reactor at about 1000 degrees C. Volatile heavy(More)
The spectroscopic application of a new broadband microelectromechanical-system-tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser with single-mode coverage of 60 nm (245 cm(-1)) in a single, continuous sweep is described. The operation of the device is illustrated with high-resolution spectra of CO and CO2 over 110 cm(-1) (27 nm) and 67 cm(-1) (17 nm),(More)
Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 ± 100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high(More)
Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of(More)
A new commercial system consisting of a flow injection analysis system for hydride generation coupled with a transversely heated graphite atomizer-atomic absorption spectrometer for the determination of lead is investigated in detail. The hydride generation is optimized by using an ammonium peroxodisulphate-hydrochloric acid system as oxidant and sodium(More)
Computing platforms equipped with accelerators like GPUs have proven to provide great computational power. However, exploiting such platforms for existing scientific applications is not a trivial task. Current GPU programming frameworks such as CUDA C/C++ require low-level programming from the developer in order to achieve high performance code. As a result(More)
Rapid cavity ringdown measurements of multiple broadband absorbing species (methanol and isopropanol) in gas mixtures have been recorded with two multiplexed continuous-wave distributed-feedback diode lasers operating near 1.4 mum. A measurement sensitivity of 2.4 x 10(-9) cm(-1) for a 4.3-s averaging time was achieved in a 39.5-cm-long static cell with(More)
Laser ignition has been discussed widely as a potentially superior ignition source for technical appliances such as internal combustion engines. Ignition strongly affects overall combustion, and its early stages in particular have strong implications on subsequent pollutant formation, flame quenching, and extinction. Our research here is devoted to the(More)