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The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is known to be activated in depressed patients. Although direct evidence is lacking, this activation is hypothesized to be due to hyperactivity of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Recent immunocytochemical studies in experimental animals and in(More)
This study was designed to investigate the role of serum proteins, microglia, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells and dystrophic neurites in the genesis of cerebral amyloid. Using A4 protein antisera, we found an amorphous non-congophilic, form of plaque, which was not seen in Bielschowsky silver staining or Bodian impregnations.(More)
One of the characteristic histological features of Parkinson's disease (PD), with or without dementia, is the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) in the brainstem and neocortical and limbic structures. They are often accompanied by Alzheimer type pathology (ATP). In the present retrospective study the clinical features and post-mortem findings of 18 consecutive(More)
47 patients with spongiform leucoencephalopathy but no other consistent abnormalities, except brown pigmentation of the alveolar macrophages in the lungs, are described. 11 patients have died. Epidemiological studies indicate at the cause of the illness the inhalatory use of poisoned heroin vapours (pyrolysate). The heroin is primarily sold on the black(More)
A neurodegenerative disease is reported in 5 related families, belonging to a Dutch genetic isolate. Seven children (5 females, 2 males) had microcephaly, spastic pareses, severe extrapyramidal dyskinesia and failure to acquire any voluntary skills. Four died during childhood. Marked pontocerebellar hypoplasia and progressive cerebral atrophy were found by(More)
Using immunohistochemical staining for beta-amyloid proteins in the brains of Alzheimer patients two basic types of plaques can be found: 'amorphous' or 'diffuse' non-congophilic plaques and classical plaques. Acute phase proteins alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, complement factors and P-component ('plaque-associated molecules') have been reported in both types of(More)
The water-soluble proteins of the cerebral gray matter and some enzyme systems (cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase) were studied in 9 autopsy cases of Alzheimer's presenile or senile dementia, 1 case of Pick's disease and 1 case of cerebral arteriosclerosis. The proteins and enzyme patterns(More)
Callosal agenesis and interhemispheral cysts containing ependyma, choroid plexus and glial cells are reported in a male infant. To the authors' knowledge this represents the 4th recorded case. Other findings were: nodular neuronal heterotopias with fully differentiated spiny neocortical neurons, widespread neocortical microgyria, cerebellar hypoplasia and(More)
A newborn is reported with diffuse gliomatosis involving the cerebral hemispheres, the brainstem and the cerebellum. The presenting signs were paucity of spontaneous movements except for multifocal clonic seizures, absent response to sensory stimuli and optic atrophy. A CT scan suggested agyria. The child expired on the seventh day. Autopsy disclosed(More)
Patients with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and non-specific symptoms often pose a diagnostic dilemma. PET/CT visualises infection, inflammation and malignancy, all of which may cause elevated ESR. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of 18F-fluorodeoxglucose positron emission tomography (PET/CT) in the diagnostic(More)