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While it is widely appreciated that infection with a virulent virus can produce disease in an animal, the ability of a mixture of avirulent viruses to produce disease by means of complementation or recombination in vivo has not been established. In this study, two weakly neuroinvasive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains were simultaneously(More)
Pathways of viral gene expression were investigated during the acute phase of sensory ganglionic infection with HSV-1. To facilitate these studies we constructed KOS/62-3, an HSV-1 vector in which the Escherichia coli lac-Z gene was inserted behind both copies of the promoter for the viral latency-associated transcripts. Following footpad inoculation of(More)
The biological role of latent phase transcripts was studied in a rabbit model of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) ocular reactivation. Virus X10-13, a variant of HSV which does not express latency associated transcripts (LAT), has been previously shown to establish latent infection in mouse sensory nerve ganglia, and LAT(-) virus can be recovered upon(More)
A mouse model for ocular reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was modified and used to study the effect of strain difference on the frequency of ocular HSV reactivation. Outbred male NIH white mice were immunized with 1.0 ml of anti-HSV serum with a neutralizing titer of 1:400 24 hr before infection and bilaterally infected at 10(5)(More)
Viral functions essential for the establishment of latent infection in murine sensory neurons in vivo were investigated by employing a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) variant (KD6/B11) deleted for expression of the ICP4 gene and therefore unable to replicate. Since the viral DNA persisted in these cells, the latency-associated transcripts were expressed(More)
A genetically engineered herpes simplex virus variant was constructed for use as a stable gene vector for neurons. To inhibit replication, the agent possessed a deletion in the immediate early gene ICP4, and to minimize reactivation from the latent state, the gene encoding the latency-associated transcript was deleted. The E. coli beta-galactosidase gene(More)
Using herpes simplex viruses deleted and restored for the latency-associated transcripts (LATs), we have quantitatively assessed the role of the transcripts in establishment and maintenance of latent infection. Determination of the number of neurons latently infected and the copy number of viral genomes per latently infected ganglion indicated that there is(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains F, HF and HFEM were studied with respect to pathogenicity in mice and growth characteristics in vivo and in vitro compared to the neurovirulent HSV-1 strains 17 syn+ and KOS. All three viruses demonstrated reduced virulence in mouse brains and were completely avirulent after footpad inoculation. They were shown to(More)
We previously reported that simultaneous inoculation of mice on abraded rear footpads with two nonneuroinvasive viruses (herpes simplex virus type 1 ANG and KOS) resulted in the deaths of 62% of the animals (R. T. Javier, F. Sedarati, and J. G. Stevens, Science 234:746-748, 1986). In the current study, to better understand the events responsible for the(More)
We characterized nucleocapsid (NC) forms generated during infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains AD169 and Towne. Two morphological forms of NC were isolated by Renografin-76 banding of the nuclear (N) or cytoplasmic (C) fractions of infected cells. SDS-PAGE analysis of the N- and C-NC forms of AD169 and Towne showed the presence of three(More)
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