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The spatial resolution of a fast, multichannel, optical recording apparatus has been improved in an attempt to increase the completeness of optical recordings of neuron activity responsible for the Aplysia gill-withdrawal reflex. We developed a new optical apparatus, increasing the number of pixels to 448. Action potential activity from 168 to 192 neurons(More)
Elevated CO 2 reduced fine root dynamics (production and turnover) of white birch seedlings, especially grown in volcanic ash soil compared with brown forest soil. Increased atmospheric CO2 usually enhances photosynthetic ability and growth of trees. To understand how increased CO2 affects below-ground part of trees under varied soil condition, we(More)
Ecological function of charcoal has been mainly investigated by adding charcoal to soil, which is not fully adequate to understand in situ the role in fire-prone forest ecosystem. To determine in situ effects of charcoal on ecosystem functions, such as nutrient availability, we conducted an experimental burning in a Japanese white birch forest with dense(More)
The CO 2 effect on the root production of a broad-leaved community was insignificant when grown in brown forest soil, however, it was positively large when grown in volcanic ash soil. We evaluated the root response to elevated CO2 fumigation of 3 birches (Betula sp.) and 1 deciduous oak (Quercus sp.) grown in immature volcanic ash soil (VA) or brown forest(More)
Elevated CO 2 enhances the photosynthesis and growth of hybrid larch F 1 seedlings. However, elevated CO 2 -induced change of tree shape may have risk to the other environmental stresses. The hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × L. kaempferi) is one of the most promising species for timber production as well as absorption of atmospheric CO2. To(More)
To predict the performance of coppice forests with Japanese oak (Quercus mongolica var. crispula) in future changing environment, we studied the growth, photosynthesis, and powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) infection of sprouts of Japanese oak under free-air CO2 enrichment. Elevated CO2 reduced powdery mildew infection in both leaves of the shoot(More)
This paper describes a new human-machine interface based on mouth open/close motions. User attached the developed controller with the skin surface to observe the moth open/close states. The controller equipped a tiny magnet sensor by which the slight relative displacement between the upper and lower skin point of mouth could be measured. For a higher(More)
High accuracy positioning services named PAS, based on nation wide RTK-GPS and FKP method, has been realized in Japan, and commercially operated since September 2003. Cm-level accuracy is obtained and uniformity in the service area is also validated. Application to human navigation prototype system is also shown with real image on cellular phone, and will(More)
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