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BACKGROUND Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine is associated with reduction in postoperative analgesic requirements. This study examined whether dexmedetomidine added to i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine could improve analgesia while reducing opioid-related side-effects. METHODS In this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study, 100(More)
BACKGROUND Nalbuphine, a mixed agonist-antagonist opioid, has a potential to attenuate the mu-opioid effects and to enhance the kappa-opioid effects. However, when morphine and nalbuphine are mixed together, the clinical interactions in different combining ratios on analgesic effect and adverse events are unknown. METHODS This randomized, double-blind(More)
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