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The propagation and reflection of electromagnetic waves in a three-dimensional environment is simulated, and realistic images are produced using the resulting light distributions and reflectance functions. A finite difference time domain method is employed to advance the electric and magnetic fields in a scene. Surfaces containing wavelength scaled(More)
We present particle dynamics simulations for the response of magnetorheological (MR) uids upon application of a magnetic eld. The particles motion is considered to be governed by magnetic, hydrodynamic and repulsive interactions. Fluid-particle interactions are accounted for via Stokes' drag while inter-particle repulsions are modeled through approximate(More)
Magnetorheological (MR) uids constitute examples of controllable (\smart") u-ids, whose rheological properties vary in response to an applied magnetic eld. These uids typically consist of micron-sized, magnetizable particles dispersed in a non-permeable carrier uid. The essential characteristic of MR uids is that they may be continuously and reversibly(More)
Magnetorheological (MR) uids represent a class of smart materials whose rheological properties change in response to the application of a magnetic eld. These uids typically consist of small (m) magnetizable particles dispersed in a non-magnetic carrier uid that generally contains additives such as surfactants and anti-wear agents 1]. Due to such additives ,(More)
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