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Elevated levels of many metals are toxic to plant roots, but their modes of action are not well understood. We investigated the toxicities of aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), and lanthanum (La) in solution on the growth and external morphology of 3-d-old cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) roots for periods of up to 48 h. Root elongation rate decreased by 50% at ca.(More)
Solution culture has been used extensively to determine the phytotoxic effects of trace metals. A review of the literature from 1975 to 2009 was carried out to evaluate the effects of As(V), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) on plants grown in solution. A total of 119 studies was selected using criteria that allowed a valid(More)
Foliar application may be used to supply boron (B) to a crop when B demands are higher than can be supplied via the soil. While B foliar sprays have been used to correct B deficiency in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the field, no studies have determined the amount of B taken up by sunflower plant parts via foliar application. A study was conducted in(More)
Low concentrations of Al, Cu and La rapidly decrease root elongation and cause transverse ruptures to the rhizodermis and outer cortex, but it is not known if other trace metals have similar effects. Six trace metals, Ga, Gd, Hg, In, Ru, and Sc, decreased cowpea root growth and caused ruptures similar to those caused by Al, Cu and La. Calculated speciation(More)
Despite the rhizotoxicity of aluminum (Al) being identified over 100 years ago, there is still no consensus regarding the mechanisms whereby root elongation rate is initially reduced in the approximately 40% of arable soils worldwide that are acidic. We used high-resolution kinematic analyses, molecular biology, rheology, and advanced imaging techniques to(More)
Although grasses are commonly used to revegetate sites contaminated with lead (Pb), little is known regarding the Pb-tolerance of many of these species. Using dilute solution culture to mimic the soil solution, the growth of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf cv. Basilisk) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth cv. Pioneer) was related to the mean(More)
Sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy) (a C4 species of Poaceae) is commonly used to revegetate disturbed sites in low-rainfall environments, but comparatively little is known regarding copper (Cu) toxicity in this species. A dilute nutrient solution culture experiment was conducted for 10 d to examine the effects of elevated Cu(2+) activities(More)
In comparison with other crop species, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been found to be very tolerant of high manganese (Mn) concentrations in nutrient solution. Furthermore, sunflower was able to accumulate high Mn concentrations in plant tops without apparent detrimental effect on growth. The first symptom of excess Mn supply (c. 30μM Mn in solution)(More)
• Reductions in plant growth as a result of salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. • Short-term (48-h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) or potassium (K). •(More)
Many recent studies examining aluminum (Al) toxicity have failed to consider its complex chemistry, thereby leading to erroneous results. Using modelling and experimental approaches, we focussed on the key effects of pH, P, and ionic strength on Al in nutrient solutions and resultant root elongation rate (RER) of soybean (Glycine max). A review of the(More)