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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed for experimental and therapeutic modulation of regional brain function. Specifically, anodal tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) together with cathodal tDCS of the supraorbital region have been associated with improvement of cognition and mood, and have been suggested for the(More)
In previous studies, fast repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with a frequency > 1 Hz demonstrated substantial antidepressant effects compared to sham rTMS. However, it is not clear whether fast rTMS is superior to slow rTMS (frequency < or = 1 Hz) which is safe at therapeutically promising higher intensities. The aim of this double-blind(More)
A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety(More)
The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the American Venous Forum (AVF) have developed clinical practice guidelines for the care of patients with varicose veins of the lower limbs and pelvis. The document also includes recommendations on the management of superficial and perforating vein incompetence in patients with associated, more advanced chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is associated with a decrease in seizure frequency in partial-onset seizure patients. Initial trials suggest that it may be an effective treatment, with few side-effects, for intractable depression. METHOD An open, uncontrolled European multi-centre study (D03) of VNS therapy was conducted, in addition to(More)
Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the anode placed on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been reported to enhance working memory in healthy subjects and to improve mood in major depression. However, its putative antidepressant, cognitive and behavior action is not well understood. Here, we evaluated the(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an interesting technique for non-invasively stimulating the brain in awake alert humans. It is a powerful research tool for examining brain behavior relationships. Additionally many researchers are investigating whether repeatedly applying TMS to specific regions over several days to weeks might have therapeutic effects.(More)
The CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders (CVD) was developed in 1994 by an international ad hoc committee of the American Venous Forum, endorsed by the Society for Vascular Surgery, and incorporated into "Reporting Standards in Venous Disease" in 1995. Today most published clinical papers on CVD use all or portions of CEAP. Rather than have it(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is investigated as a new tool in the therapy of depression and other psychiatric disorders. In almost all studies, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been selected as the target site for stimulation. Usually this region was determined by identifying the patient's motor cortex, and from there the coil was placed(More)
BACKGROUND Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been proposed as therapeutic intervention in major depression. According to clinical needs, this study addresses the question whether tDCS is effective in treatment resistant major depressive episodes. METHODS Twenty-two patients with a major depressive episode(More)