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In yeast, the Ypt1 GTPase is required for ER-to-cis-Golgi and cis-to-medial-Golgi protein transport, while Ypt31/32 are a functional pair of GTPases essential for exit from the trans-Golgi. We have previously identified a Ypt1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity and characterized it as a large membrane-associated protein complex that localizes(More)
Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including(More)
The TGF-beta/activin/BMP cytokine family signals through serine/threonine kinase receptors, but how the receptors transduce the signal is unknown. The Mad (Mothers against decapentaplegic) gene from Drosophila and the related Sma genes from Caenorhabditis elegans have been genetically implicated in signalling by members of the bone-morphogenetic-protein(More)
Mutations in alpha-synuclein, a protein highly enriched in presynaptic terminals, have been implicated in the expression of familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) whereas native alpha-synuclein is a major component of intraneuronal inclusion bodies characteristic of PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Although overexpression of human(More)
Microtubule-associated protein tau undergoes several post-translational modifications and aggregates into paired helical filaments (PHFs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. These modifications of tau include hyperphosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, glycation, polyamination, nitration, and proteolysis. Hyperphosphorylation and(More)
Development of methods that allow an efficient expression of exogenous genes in animals would provide tools for gene function studies, treatment of diseases and for obtaining gene products. Therefore, we have developed a hydrodynamics-based procedure for expressing transgenes in mice by systemic administration of plasmid DNA. Using cDNA of luciferase and(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant, generating a gall tumor. Replacing the transferred tumor-inducing genes with exogenous DNA allows the introduction of any desired gene into the plant. Thus, A. tumefaciens has been critical for the development of modern plant genetics and(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta family that regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, and participate in the development of most tissues and organs in vertebrates. Smad proteins function downstream of TGF-beta receptor serine/threonine kinases and undergo serine phosphorylation in response to receptor(More)
Entry into mitosis requires the activity of the Cdc2 kinase. Cdc2 associates with the B-type cyclins, and the Cdc2-cyclin B heterodimer is in turn regulated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of threonine 161 is required for the Cdc2-cyclin B complex to be catalytically active, whereas phosphorylation of threonine 14 and tyrosine 15 is inhibitory. Human(More)
Molecular self-assembly presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of objects specified with nanometre precision. DNA molecular structures and intermolecular interactions are particularly amenable to the design and synthesis of complex molecular objects. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNA that(More)