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Aims/hypothesis. Maternal diabetes increases oxidative stress in embryos. Maternal diabetes also inhibits expression of embryonic genes, most notably, Pax-3, which is required for neural tube closure. Here we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress inhibits expression of Pax-3, thereby providing a molecular basis for neural tube defects induced by(More)
The HVAC systems for operating rooms are energy-intensive and sophisticated in that they operate 24 hours per day year-round and use large amount of fresh air to deal with infectious problems and to dilute microorganisms. However, little quantitative information has been investigated about trade-off between energy-efficient HVAC system and indoor(More)
BACKGROUND Kupffer cell (KC), a kind of important antigen-presenting cell in liver, play an important role in the process of acute rejection after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of suppression of donor KC B7 expression on recipient lymphocyte activation and secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in vitro. METHODS Liver(More)
The cytotoxic effect of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is believed to be associated with a compromise in cellular energy arising as a consequence of its persistent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. MPP+ is a rather weak inhibitor of electron transport, but it undergoes passive accumulation inside actively respiring(More)
Analogues of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the neurotoxic metabolite of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, were evaluated for inhibition of respiration in intact mitochondria (Mw) and in electron transport particles (ETP). MPP+ exhibits relatively weak inhibitory activity in ETP, but potent inhibition in Mw(More)
The cytotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is believed to arise as a consequence of its time- and energy-dependent accumulation inside mitochondria, followed by inhibition of electron transport at Complex I of the respiratory chain. Consistent with our proposal that the accumulation of MPP+ represents a passive Nernstian transport into(More)
Elucidation of the mechanism(s) by which 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its active metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) cause parkinsonism in humans and other primates has prompted consideration of possible endogenous MPTP/MPP(+)-like neurotoxins in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Here we examined(More)
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