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OBJECTIVE To determine the costs and consequences of switching asthma patients, managed in primary care, from a twice-daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), to either a once-daily or another twice-daily ICS. DESIGN This was a case-control study based on an interrogation of the General Practice Research Database in the UK, for patients with a Read code of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cost effectiveness of using carboxymethylcellulose dressing (CMCD; Aquacel Hydrofiber) compared to gauze in the management of exuding venous leg ulcers in Germany and the USA. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a modelling study performed from the perspective of payers (i.e. the sickness funds in Germany and the community sector in the(More)
The purpose of this paper is to identify the treatment patterns and corresponding costs of healthcare resource use associated with palliative care for different types of advanced cancer patients, from the time they started strong opioid treatment until death. This was a modelling study performed from the perspective of the UK's National Health Service(More)
OBJECTIVES Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) is a system for rating the confidence in estimates of effect and grading guideline recommendations. It promotes evaluation of the quality of the evidence for each outcome and an assessment of balance between desirable and undesirable outcomes leading to a judgment about the(More)
BACKGROUND National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines (CGs) make recommendations across large, complex care pathways for broad groups of patients. They rely on cost-effectiveness evidence from the literature and from new analyses for selected high-priority topics. An alternative approach would be to build a model of the(More)
BACKGROUND In attempting to constrain healthcare expenditure growth, health technology assessment (HTA) can enable policy-makers to look beyond budget impact and facilitate more rational decision-making. However lack of technical capacity and poor governance can limit use in some countries. Undertaking de facto HTA by adapting decisions taken in countries(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost effectiveness of controlled-release (CR) oxybutynin compared with immediate-release (IR) oxybutynin and tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Austria, France and the UK. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a modelling study on the management of patients with OAB who were >/=18 years of age, and had urge or(More)
This study was a retrospective survey of the management of a cohort of children with cerebral palsy at Seepark Hospital, Germany, who did (cases; n=107) and did not (controls; n=107) receive botulinum toxin injections. Data on healthcare resource use and clinical outcomes over 12 months were collected from the date cases received their first injection and(More)