Learn More
This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association. It represents the current state of knowledge regarding(More)
Members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of O(2) to reactive oxygen species, have increased in number during eukaryotic evolution. Seven isoforms of the NOX gene family have been identified in mammals; however, specific roles of NOX enzymes in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology have not been fully elucidated.(More)
BACKGROUND In 2002 the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defined seven specific entities, and provided standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria. In addition, the historical "gold standard" of histologic diagnosis was replaced by a multidisciplinary approach.(More)
BACKGROUND Acute exacerbations adversely affect patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrolide antibiotics benefit patients with a variety of inflammatory airway diseases. METHODS We performed a randomized trial to determine whether azithromycin decreased the frequency of exacerbations in participants with COPD who had an increased(More)
BACKGROUND Lung-volume-reduction surgery has been proposed as a palliative treatment for severe emphysema. Effects on mortality, the magnitude and durability of benefits, and criteria for the selection of patients have not been established. METHODS A total of 1218 patients with severe emphysema underwent pulmonary rehabilitation and were randomly assigned(More)
BACKGROUND The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast can improve lung function and prevent exacerbations in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We therefore investigated whether roflumilast would reduce the frequency of exacerbations requiring corticosteroids in patients with COPD. METHODS In two placebo-controlled,(More)
The long-term solution to the asthma epidemic is thought to be prevention, and not treatment of established disease. Atopic asthma arises from gene-environment interactions, which mainly take place during a short period in prenatal and postnatal development. These interactions are not completely understood, and hence primary prevention remains an elusive(More)
BACKGROUND A combination of prednisone, azathioprine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been widely used as a treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The safety and efficacy of this three-drug regimen is unknown. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who had(More)
TLR9 is a mammalian Toll-like receptor homologue that appears to function as an innate immune pattern recognition protein for motifs that are far more common in bacterial than in mammalian DNA. The gene was sequenced in 71 subjects from three self-identified U.S. ethnic groups to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 20 SNPs were found(More)