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Members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of O(2) to reactive oxygen species, have increased in number during eukaryotic evolution. Seven isoforms of the NOX gene family have been identified in mammals; however, specific roles of NOX enzymes in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology have not been fully elucidated.(More)
BACKGROUND Lung-volume-reduction surgery has been proposed as a palliative treatment for severe emphysema. Effects on mortality, the magnitude and durability of benefits, and criteria for the selection of patients have not been established. METHODS A total of 1218 patients with severe emphysema underwent pulmonary rehabilitation and were randomly assigned(More)
BACKGROUND Acute exacerbations adversely affect patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrolide antibiotics benefit patients with a variety of inflammatory airway diseases. METHODS We performed a randomized trial to determine whether azithromycin decreased the frequency of exacerbations in participants with COPD who had an increased(More)
BACKGROUND In 2002 the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defined seven specific entities, and provided standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria. In addition, the historical "gold standard" of histologic diagnosis was replaced by a multidisciplinary approach.(More)
BACKGROUND The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast can improve lung function and prevent exacerbations in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We therefore investigated whether roflumilast would reduce the frequency of exacerbations requiring corticosteroids in patients with COPD. METHODS In two placebo-controlled,(More)
  • E M Pierce, K Carpenter, +12 authors G B Martinez
  • 2007
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the severest form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia for which therapeutic targets are needed. Surgical lung biopsy specimens from IPF/UIP patients exhibit focal expression of CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 7, but the identity of these CCR7-positive cells is unknown. The purpose of the(More)
RATIONALE Limited data on sex differences in advanced COPD are available. OBJECTIVES To compare male and female emphysema patients with severe disease. METHODS One thousand fifty-three patients (38.8% female) evaluated for lung volume reduction surgery as part of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial were analyzed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have few options for treatment. The efficacy and safety of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast have been investigated in studies of patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, but not in those concomitantly treated with longacting inhaled bronchodilators. The effect of roflumilast on(More)
The long-term solution to the asthma epidemic is thought to be prevention, and not treatment of established disease. Atopic asthma arises from gene-environment interactions, which mainly take place during a short period in prenatal and postnatal development. These interactions are not completely understood, and hence primary prevention remains an elusive(More)
The composition of the lung microbiome contributes to both health and disease, including obstructive lung disease. Because it has been estimated that over 70% of the bacterial species on body surfaces cannot be cultured by currently available techniques, traditional culture techniques are no longer the gold standard for microbial investigation. Advanced(More)